Suitability of Pre-Perforated Post-Reinforced Baked Clay Beam Panels for Low Cost Housing
American Journal of Civil Engineering
Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013, Pages: 6-15
Published: Jun. 20, 2013
Views 3743 Downloads 209
Abdul Aziz Ansari, Department of Civil Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University College of Engineering Science & Technolog, Larkano, Pakistan
Nadeem-ul-Karim Bhatti, Department of Civil Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University College of Engineering Science & Technolog, Larkano, Pakistan
Muhammad Aslam Bhutto, Ph.D. Scholar, School of Built Environment Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh, United Kingdom EH14 4AS
Systematic research is being carried out since last more than one decade to prove the validity, method and materials for construction of locally available alternatives as low-cast systems for the sake of swift erection of buildings at relatively affordable cast of construction, where the pre-cast post-reinforced panels are used for erection of buildings without sacrificing the strength and durability of the buildings. One of the most universally available materials of construction since immemorial times is the earth itself, particularly in the plain areas (Pakistan) where the soil is fertile and the availability of best combination of clay and sand is not problematic. In this paper the authors present the details of systematic research which has been carried out to prove that if pre-perforated post-reinforced baked clay beams are employed for pre-cast construction, the economy could be achieved by up to 30 % without sacrificing strength, durability and stability of construction. Initially soil was dug from 25 sites at a depth of 4 ft. Their physical properties were determined. The presence of various salts and their proportion were also found. A very large number of cubes were cast with clay as major material and percentage of pit-sand (silica) as major parameter. The results of preliminary study in terms of shrinkage, specific gravity, crushing strength, tensile strength, poison’s ratio, and modulus of elasticity of baked clay specimen and the best possible combination of clay and pit-sand were obtained. The material was then compacted by applying compression. Fifty two beams with 70% clay and 30% pit-sand, 20 percent water and 4.5 N/mm2 compacting force were cast, dried, baked, post-reinforced, grouted with cement and hill-sand slurry with the ratio of 1:1 for proper bond between steel bars and surrounding baked clay were tested with point load, UDL and various boundary conditions including roller support, plate support and complete end-fixity. Full details are presented in the following section.
Abdul Aziz Ansari,
Muhammad Aslam Bhutto,
Suitability of Pre-Perforated Post-Reinforced Baked Clay Beam Panels for Low Cost Housing, American Journal of Civil Engineering.
Vol. 1, No. 1,
2013, pp. 6-15.
Ansari.A.A. & Memon M, (1999), "Preliminary study of Structural properties of baked clay" Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering & Technology, jamshoro, Vol. 18, No.3, July 1999, pp. 161-166
Ansari. A.A., (2006), "Fundamental Structural Properties of Compacted baked Clay Specimens", Quaid-e-Awam University Research journal of Engineering, science & Technology, Nawabshah. Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.39-44, July-Dec
Ansari. A.A., (2007), "Clay : The Environment Friendly Material of Construction", Proceedings first National Conference on Assessment and Proper Utilization of Indigenous Energy Resourses and their Impact on Energy, Organized by Energy and Environment Energy Department, Quaid-e-awam University of Engineering Science & Technology, Nawabshah. Pakistan, 26-28 Feb 2007.
Ansari. A.A., (2007)" Behavior of baked clay Structural beam panels", Proceeding Ninth International Summer Symposium, Yokohama National University, Yotsuya 1-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0004, Japan, organized by Japan Society of Civil Engineers, (JSCE), japan, 18th September 2007.
Ansari A.A., (2007), "Mechanical System Developed for Reinforced baked Clay Structural Panels", Proceeding International Conference of failure of Engineering Materials & Structures FEMS (22-23 October 2007), Organized by Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Engineering & Technology, Texila. Pakistan.
Ansari. A.A., (2007), "Use of RBC New material of Construction for Multistory Buildings", Proceeding 5th Civil Engineering Congress, Organized by the Institute of Engineers Pakistan , Karachi, Pakistan, 8th-9th Dec; 2007.
Ansari A.A & Memon M., (2007), " Pre-Perforated Post-Reinforced Baked Clay Structural Panels for Low-Cost Construction Option" Proceeding International Workshop on Cement Based Materials & Civil Infrastructure, Organized by ACI Pakistan Chapter, held on 10th-11th December 2007 at pearl Continental Hotel, Karachi. Pakistan.
Ansari, A.A., (2008), "RBC as Low-Cost Alternative of RCC as Structural Material" Proceeding NC-PTD-2008, national Conference on Phase Transformations and Deformation in Engineering Materials, organized by Institute of Advanced Materias, Bahauddin Zakaria University, Multan, Pakistan, held on February 8-9, 2008.
Ansari A.A., (2008), " Management Aspects of Building Construction Using RBC", Proceeding Ist International Conference on Engineering Management, benchmarking Management Practice in Developing Countries, ICEM-2008, Organized by Department of Civil Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering & technology, Jamshoro, Pakistan, held on 4-5 March 2008.
Ansari A.A., (2008), "A New Approach to Construction of Building Using RBC as Ecological Superior Material", Proceeding Second National Conference on Energy and Environment Issues, Concerns and Options , Organized by Energy and Environment Engineering Department, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science & Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan, 27-29, March 2008.
Ansari. A.A., (2009), "Clay; the Universal Accommodator of Humanity", proceeding Eleventh International Summer Symposium , Tokyo Institute of technology, Tokyo, Organized by Japan Society of Civil Engineers, (JSCE), japan, 11th September 2009.
Ansari. A.A. (2009), Baked clay as replacement of reinforced Concrete", proceeding Second Official Regional Conference of international institute for FRP in Construction (IIFC) for Asia Pecific Region, organized by Department of civil Engineering, Hanyang University, Soul, koria 9th-11th, December 2009.
Ansari A.A, Memon. M & Khaskheli G.B., (2011), " Pre-Perforated Post-Reinforced Structural Panels of baked Clay as Cheaper Alternative, Paper presented in 12th East Aasia Pacific Conference on structures Engineering and Construction (EASEC), Hongkong, & published in the Procedia Engineering 14(2011), 2635-2641, on line: www.scencedirect.com, 1877-7058, 2011 published by Elsevier Ltd, doi; 10.1016/j proeng 2011.07.391
Ansari. A.A., (2011), "Performanceof post-Reinforce baked clay Panels of beams", proceeding 3rd CUTSE 2011, International Conference held in Miri, Sarawak, Malasia, 8-9 November, 2011.
Ansari A.A. & Lakho. N.A., (2013), "Determination of Structural Properties of Baked clay as Repalcement of RCC", International Journal of Emerging Technology & Advanced Engineering, New Dehli, India. web site: www.ijetae.com(ISSN (2250-2459, ISO 9001,2008 certified journal) Vol. 3, Issue2, Feb 2013.
Hendrik N., (1997), "Clay Materials for Self-Reliant Potter", pp. 1-31, Clay Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 1-31,
Greyt. G. (1968), "Defination Clay", Greyt Gift Home, Premium soil stabilizers Global leader of soil stabilization, pp. 1-2, 1968..
British Standard Institution, (1972), " CP-110, The Structural use of Concrete," Part-I, Design Materials and workmanship
ACI-318, Building Code Requirement for Reinforced Concrete, American Concrete Institute.