Hybrid Fibre Optic Sensor Network for Real-time High Temperature Performance Monitoring of Steel Structures
American Journal of Civil Engineering
Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013, Pages: 16-23
Received: May 22, 2013; Published: Jun. 20, 2013
Views 3306      Downloads 246
Author
Ying Huang, Department of Civil Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58018 United States
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
In and post a fire event, an accurate and real-time evaluation and monitoring of a structure’s performance can assist firefighters for efficient survivor rescuing, which significantly improve the fire rescuing safety both for fire fighters and the trapped survivors. However, due to the lack of durable sensors, the structural performance of steel structures in fire conditions is challenging to be evaluated in real time, especially when the associated civil structures are in a large scale. In this paper, a fiber optic sensor network is developed and used to monitor the structural performance of the steel structures in high temperature environments. The fiber optic sensor network has the capacity of real-time large strain measurement up to 12% and temperature of up to 700ºC simultaneously. The capability of large strain measurement up to 12% enables the sensor system to monitor the strain distribution of steel structures during fire events in real time. An one-story one-bay steel frame (A36 steel) is used as an example in this paper to perform the structural performance assessment of steel structures in high temperature using the developed sensor network. The simulated fire tests were performed using high temperature furnace through gradual temperature increase from room temperature to 800 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min. The evaluated fiber optic sensor network consists of two long period fiber grating (LPFG) temperature sensors, five movable extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) large strain sensors, and two hybrid EFPI/LPFG sensors, which were distributed along the steel frame inside and around the heating zone of the frame. Experimental results demonstrated that the developed sensor network effectively monitored the plastic hinge formation and failure mode of the steel frame, approving the feasibility of the sensor network for steel structure evaluation in high temperature environments.
Keywords
Fiber Optic Sensor, Large Strain Measurement, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), High Temperature Performance, Steel Structure
To cite this article
Ying Huang, Hybrid Fibre Optic Sensor Network for Real-time High Temperature Performance Monitoring of Steel Structures, American Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2013, pp. 16-23. doi: 10.11648/j.ajce.20130101.13
References
[1]
K. E. Easerling, "High temperature resistance strain gauges," Brit. J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 14, No. 2, pp.79-84, 1963.
[2]
V. G. M. Annamdas, "Review on developments in fiber optics sensors and applications," International Journal of Materials Engineering, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1-16, 2011.
[3]
X. W. Shu, D. H. Zhao, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Use of dual-grating sensors formed by different types of fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous temperature and strain measurements," Applied Optics, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 2006-2012, 2004.
[4]
Y. J. Rao and D. A. Jackson, "Review article: Recent progress in fiber-optic low coherence interferometry," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 7, pp. 981–999, 1996.
[5]
Y. J. Rao, S. F. Yuan, X. K. Zeng, D. K. Lian, Y. Zhu, Y. P. Wang, S. L. Huang, T. Y. Liu, G. F. Fernando, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement of advanced 3-D braided composite materials using an improved EFPI/FBG system," Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 38, pp. 557-566, 2002.
[6]
X. K. Zeng, Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, "Transverse load, static strain, temperature and vibration measurement using a cascaded FBG/EFPI/LPFG sensor system," in: Technical Digest, OFS-15, Portland, USA, 2002, 199–202, 2002.
[7]
L. V. Nguyen, D. Hwang, D. S. Moon, and Y. Chung, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using a Lyot fiber filter incorporated with a fiber Bragg grating in a linear configuration," Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 20, pp. 034006-11, 2009.
[8]
Y. G. Han and S. B. Lee, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Optics Express, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 476-481, 2003.
[9]
C. L. Zhao, J. R. Zhao, W. Jin, J. Ju, L. Cheng, and X. G. Huang, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement using a highly birefringence fiber loop mirror and a long-period grating written in a photonic crystal fiber," Optics Communications, vol. 282, pp. 4077-4080, 2009.
[10]
Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, X. Liao, and H. Y. Deng, "Hybrid LPFG/MEFPI sensor for simultaneous measurement of high-temperature and strain," Optics Express, vol. 15, no. 22, pp. 14936-14941, 2007.
[11]
Y. Huang, G. Chen, H. Xiao, Y. N. Zhang, and Z. Zhou, "A quasi-distributed optical fiber sensor network for large strain and high-temperature measurements of structures," Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 7983, Paper No. 798317, 2011.
[12]
Y. Huang, X. Fang, W. J. Bevans, Z. Zhou, H. Xiao, and G. Chen, "Large-strain optical fiber sensing and real-time FEM updating of steel structures under high temperature effect", Smart Materials and Structure, vol. 22, pp. 015016, 2013.
[13]
A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, A. D. Kersey, and A. M. Yurek, "Multiplexing of interferometric sensors using phase-generated carrier techniques," Electronics letters, vo. 23, no. 13, pp. 665-666, 1987.
[14]
Y. J. Rao, J. Jiang, and C. X. Zhou, "Spatial-frequency-multiplexed fiber-optic Fizeau strain sensor system with optical amplification," Sens. Actuat. A, vol. 120, pp. 354-359, 2005.
[15]
C. X. Zhou, Y. J. Rao, and J. Jiang, "A coarse-wavelength-division-multiplexed extrinsic fiber Fabry–Perot sensor system," Proc. SPIE, vol. 5634, paper no. 5634-32, 2004.
[16]
Y. J. Rao, C. X. Zhou, and T. Zhu, "SFDM/CWDM of fiber-optic Fizeau strain sensors," IEEE Photon Technology Letter, vol. 17, pp. 1259-1261, 2005.
[17]
A. D. Kersey, K. L. Dorsey, and A. Dandridge, "Demonstration of an eight-element time-division multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor array," Electronics Letters, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 689-691, 1988.
[18]
A. D. Kersey, "Demonstration of a hybrid time/wavelength division multiplexed interferometric fiber sensor array," Electronics letters, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 554-555, 1992.
[19]
D. G. Haigh and J. T. Taylor, "Time-division multiplexing of fiber optical interferometric sensors using a frequency modulated laser diode," Electronics letters, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 54-55, 1988.
[20]
A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, and M. A. Davis, "Code-division Multiplexed Interferometric Array With Phase Noise Reduction And Low Crosstalk, in Optical Fiber Sensors," in International Conferences on Optical Fiber Sensors, paper no.TH16, 1992.
[21]
Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, J. U. Kang, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain using dual long-period fiber gratings with controlled temperature and strain sensitivities," Optics Express, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 476-481, 2003.
[22]
Y. Huang, Z. Zhou, Y. N. Zhang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, "A temperature self-compensated LPFG sensor for large strain measurements at high temperature," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation & Measurement, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 2997-3004, 2010.
[23]
Y. Huang, T. Wei, Z. Zhou, Y. N. Zhang, G. Chen, and H. Xiao, "An extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometer-based large strain sensor with high resolution", Meas. Sci. Technol., vol. 21, pp. 105308-16, 2010.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186