Effects of Firing Time and Temperature on Physical Properties of Fired Clay Bricks
American Journal of Civil Engineering
Volume 5, Issue 1, January 2017, Pages: 21-26
Received: Aug. 18, 2016;
Accepted: Sep. 23, 2016;
Published: Jan. 5, 2017
Views 5328 Downloads 178
Eshetu Tsega, Construction Technology and Management Department, College of Engineering, Ambo University, Oromia, Ethiopia
Alemu Mosisa, Civil and Environmental Engineering School, Jimma Institute of Technology, Jimma University, Oromia, Ethiopia
Fekadu Fufa, Civil and Environmental Engineering School, Jimma Institute of Technology, Jimma University, Oromia, Ethiopia
Follow on us
Brick is one of the most widely used conventional construction materials throughout the world. The production cost of clay brick is significantly affected by the cost of energy required for firing. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of different firing temperatures on the compressive strength (CS), water absorption (WA) and saturation coefficients (SC) of fired clay bricks produced around Jimma Town and evaluate the effect of firing processes in brick manufacturing on the properties, color and appearance of the clay brick. During the production process, the effects of different heating rates on physical and mechanical properties of firing standard bricks were analyzed. In this study, different heating rates were used: slow heating rate and fast heating rate. Changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the fired clay brick were assessed with the increase in the firing temperature firing time. The results show that the CS increased with the increase in the firing temperature. On the contrary, WA and SC of the fired clay bricks decreased with the increase in the firing temperature. Increment in the duration of firing slightly increases the CS and lowers both the WA and WA of the clay brick. In the study area, traditional brick producers did not have firing temperature control device or mechanism in the fired clay brick production. The kiln operator decided the firing temperature and duration. The absence of the device frequently results in the over or under firing of bricks greatly affecting the engineering properties of this widely used contraction material. Therefore, the traditional clay brick producers should install the temperature control device on their kiln or at least needs to be trained how to approximately determine the optimum temperature.
Burnt Clay Brick, CS, Firing Temperature, Saturation Coefficient, Water Absorption
To cite this article
Effects of Firing Time and Temperature on Physical Properties of Fired Clay Bricks, American Journal of Civil Engineering.
Vol. 5, No. 1,
2017, pp. 21-26.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abebe Dinku, A. Z. (2004). Assessments of locally produced brick’s quality for construction purposes, EACE Bulletin Volume. 6. No.1.
Abebe Dinku (2002). Construction materials laboratory manual. AAU Printing Press.
ASTM C67-90. (1996). Standard test method for the properties of fired clay bricks “Annual Book of American Society for Testing and Materials’’.
Altayework Tadesse (2013). Effects of firing temperature on physical properties of burnt clay bricks produced around Addis Ababa. Unpublished M.Sc Thesis. Addis Ababa University.
Brick making enterprises in Hai Duong, H. Y. (2004). Vertical shaft continuous kiln (VSCK) in brick making industry, Vietnam's thermology science and technique institute.
Brick Products Production Share Company. (2013). Verbal communication with Finance and Administration Head of Brick Products. Addis Ababa.
British Standard Institution. (1985). British Standard Specification for clay bricks (BS 3921).
Ethiopian Standards Agency (ESA). (2011). Solid clay bricks, ES 86:2001, Ethiopian Standard, Second edition 2001-06-27.
Hung Yen, D. N. (2004.). Vertical shaft continuous kiln (VSCK) in brick making industry, Brick making enterprises. Vietnam's Thermology Science and Technique Institute.
Karaman. (2006). Firing temperature and time influence on clay bricks properties. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 154-155.
Mbumbia I, D. W. (2000). Performance characteristics of lateritic soil bricks fired at low temperatures. Case study of Cameroon, Const Build Mat, 121-131.
The ASTM Committee on Standards. (1999). Annual book of ASTM standards, Volume 04.05, “Standard specification for building bricks (Solid masonry units made from clay or shale)”. ASTM C 62-97a.
The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. (2004). Central Statistical Authority. Welfare monitoring survey, analytical report.
Syed Ashraful Alam, (2006). Use of biomass fuels in the brick-making industries of Sudan: Implications for deforestation and greenhouse gas emission, Thesis submitted for M. Sc. Degree in Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Solid clay bricks, ES 86:2001 (2001), Ethiopian Standard, Second edition 2001-06-27.
Ethiopian Standards Agency (ESA), 2011.