Structural Evaluation of the Effect of Pulverized Palm Kernel Shell (PPKS) on Cement-Modified Lateritic Soil Sample
American Journal of Civil Engineering
Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 205-211
Received: Apr. 20, 2017; Accepted: May 2, 2017; Published: Jun. 19, 2017
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Authors
Olutaiwo Adewale, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria
Ajisafe Segun, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria
Adanikin Ariyo, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara-Mokin, Nigeria
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Abstract
There have been global efforts to reduce environmental pollution of agricultural and industrial waste products by utilizing such wastes as stabilizing agents to improve soils for various uses, especially road construction. In this research, lateritic soil sample obtained from a borrow pit was tested with varying percentages of Pulverized Palm Kernel Shell (PPKS). The soil was classified as A-6 (AASHTO classification) using standard soil laboratory tests. Laboratory tests such as Atterberg Limits, Compaction, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) were conducted on the soil + PPKS mix only and also on soil + PPKS + 3% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mix. The liquid limit (LL) and plasticity index (PI) values decreased steadily with increase in PPKS while the plastic limit (PL) value increased with up to 4% PPKS addition after which the values started decreasing. The shrinkage limit (SL) value increased with a peak value at 8% PPKS addition after which the values began to decrease. The Optimum Moisture Content (OMC) results on PPKS addition increased from 16% to 19.5% while the Maximum Dry Density (MDD) decreased by 45.18% from 1.669g/m3 to 0.915g/m3. Addition of PPKS decreased the Unsoaked CBR by 10.79% from 68.60 to 61.20% while the Soaked CBR increased by 74.12% from 18.05% to 69.75%. UCS values for the lateritic soil and PPKS for the uncured sample, at 7 days and 14 days had peak values of 85.03, 96.46 and 100.44 respectively. From the study, it can be concluded that the properties of the Lateritic soil improved when stabilized with Cement and pulverized palm kernel shell compared to when it was stabilized with pulverized palm kernel shell alone.
Keywords
Pulverized Palm Kernel Shell, Ordinary Portland Cement, Stabilization, CBR
To cite this article
Olutaiwo Adewale, Ajisafe Segun, Adanikin Ariyo, Structural Evaluation of the Effect of Pulverized Palm Kernel Shell (PPKS) on Cement-Modified Lateritic Soil Sample, American Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 205-211. doi: 10.11648/j.ajce.20170504.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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