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Evaluating the Effects of Watershed Characteristics on River Flow for the Case of Fetam River, Ethiopia
American Journal of Civil Engineering
Volume 8, Issue 6, November 2020, Pages: 139-149
Received: Aug. 29, 2020; Accepted: Sep. 17, 2020; Published: Nov. 23, 2020
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Authors
Solomon Bogale Aynalem, v
Megersa Gemechu Liben, Department of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
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Abstract
Evaluating the effects of watershed characteristics have impacted on the stream flow of the watershed by changing the magnitude of surface runoff and ground water flow. This study is mainly focusing the effects of watershed characteristics on the stream flow by changing SURQ and GWQ for the wet months (June, July, August) and dry months (January, February, March) through satellite Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with the SWAT model, climate characteristics on stream flow, slope and rainfall effects on stream flow. ArcGIS used to generate land use and cover maps from Landsat TM and ETM+ acquired, respectively, in 1995, 2005 and 2015. The result of this analysis showed that the cultivated land has expanded during the study period of 1975-2002. Using the three generated land cover maps, three SWAT models set up were run to evaluate the effects of watershed characteristics on the stream flow of the study area. The performance of the SWAT model was evaluated through sensitivity analysis, calibration, and validation. Ten flow parameters were identified to be sensitive for the stream flow of the study area and used for model calibration. The model calibration was carried out using observed stream flow data from 1975 to 1993 and a validation period from 1993 to 2002. Both the calibration and validation results showed good match between measured and simulated stream flow data with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.89 and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (ENS) of 0.78 for the calibration, and R2 of 0.91 and ENS of 0.88 of the validation period. The result of this analysis indicated that the mean monthly stream flow increased by 21.92m3/s for the wet months while for the dry months decreased by 13.1 m3/s. Generally, the analysis indicated that flow during the wet months has increased, while the flow during the dry months decreased. The SURQ increased, while GWQ decreased from 1975 to 2002 due to the increment of cultivated lands. The model results showed that the stream flow characteristics changed due to the land cover changes during the study period.
Keywords
Geographic Information System (GIS), Fetam Watershed, Land Use and Cover Change, Remote Sensing, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Surface Runoff
To cite this article
Solomon Bogale Aynalem, Megersa Gemechu Liben, Evaluating the Effects of Watershed Characteristics on River Flow for the Case of Fetam River, Ethiopia, American Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 8, No. 6, 2020, pp. 139-149. doi: 10.11648/j.ajce.20200806.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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