Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma: A Review and Current Perspectives
International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Volume 2, Issue 2, May 2017, Pages: 22-36
Received: Mar. 7, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 27, 2017; Published: Apr. 14, 2017
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Najam A. Sharif, Global Alliances and External Research, Global Research & Development, Santen Incorporated, Emeryville, USA; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA
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Hypertension of the eye fundamentally results from an imbalance between the production and extrusion of aqueous humor (AQH) within the anterior segment of the eye. Vitreous humor (VH) (in the posterior segment of the eye) and AQH are responsible for maintaining the shape of the eye-ball in order that light is correctly focused on the retina for good vision. However, as we age, cells of the AQH drainage system (trabecular meshwork, TM) die and cellular debris accumulates within the TM and the canal of Schlemm thereby slowing, and in some cases, preventing AQH efflux. This results in increased resistance and elevation of hydrostatic pressure within the anterior segment, also termed as elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) or ocular hypertension (OHT). Sustained OHT exerts mechanical pressure on the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the optic nerve fibers at the back of the eye leading to their progressive demise by apoptosis, thereby distorting and diminishing visual acuity over time, and eventually leading to irreversible blindness. In some patients even “normal” IOP is destructive because their RGCs and their axons projecting to the brain are genetically or chemically predisposed to early cell death. These pathologies are termed “glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON)” and OHT is often associated with glaucoma, especially primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Today, there are several pharmacological and minimally invasive surgical interventions / devices that constitute therapeutic modalities to treat OHT and glaucoma. OHT etiology and treatments will be discussed in more detail in this review article.
Glaucoma, Ocular Hypertension, Neuroprotection, Pharmacology, Aqueous Humor
To cite this article
Najam A. Sharif, Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma: A Review and Current Perspectives, International Journal of Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2017, pp. 22-36. doi: 10.11648/j.ijovs.20170202.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
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