International Journal of Agricultural Economics
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages: 216-224
Received: Jun. 4, 2019;
Accepted: Jul. 4, 2019;
Published: Aug. 15, 2019
Views 402 Downloads 129
Wubalem Gobie, Department of Agribusiness and Value Chain Management, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia
The paper is reviewed the Ethiopian floriculture industries with the objectives to explain the Socio-Economic Significance of Floriculture to Ethiopia, the Socio-economic and Environmental view of Floriculture Industries and to identify the economic implication of floriculture in Ethiopia. Ethiopia has geographical advantages for a floriculture industry, i.e. the high altitude, the vast unexploited arable land and favourable climate for flowers as well as to achieve rapid economic growth. Because of the Government of Ethiopia gave more attention for favourable investment condition and a more enabling atmosphere for private sector development that is the floriculture sector started to grow fast in the last few years that has been increasing investors to invest. Hence, the exports of flowers have generated significant amounts of foreign exchange earnings, contributed to upgrade agricultural production skills, facilitating for best experience sharing and created substantial opportunities for waged employment and self-employment especially for females. However, the expansion of the sector is implemented with environmental degradation i.e. unsafe working conditions of floriculture farm laborers associated to massive chemical usage of the industry, exposing laborers to dangerous pesticides, with failing to provide health safeguards, and with damaging the environment from over use of nature resources as well as even if it creates for many jobs but the amount of pay is not attractive that is why the economic gains is still come at a cost to worker and environmental health. Moreover, the price fluctuation is party attributed to the instability in the supply and the insignificant export volume of cut-flowers is due to the underutilized potential of the sector and the high capital and knowledge intensive nature of the sector. Therefore, the review strongly recommended that Initiate and promote by giving incentives to floriculture producers to exercise integrated pest management practices and use of environmentally friendly agro-chemicals as well as foster better awareness by providing health and safety training to the works. And more importantly, investors ensure that projects respect the rule of law, reflect industry best practice, are viable economically, and result in durable shared value.
A Seminar Review on Impact of Floriculture Industries in Ethiopia, International Journal of Agricultural Economics.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2019, pp. 216-224.
All africa (2006). Five Major Flower Firms to Abandon Naivasha for Ethiopia, [online] Available: http://friendsofethiopia.blogspot.com/2006/02/five-majorflower-firms-to-abandon.html [2011-04-30].
Anon. (2003): Emissions of Air Pollutants in the UK. Atmospheric Emissions Inventory. http://jas.fass.org/cgi/content/full/82/13_suppl/E196.
Bekele Abebie, Ashenafi Haile & Filmon Abraha. 2014. Fruits, Vegetables and Flower Production, Management and Processing. Revised document. 59 pp.
Belwal, R. and Chala, M. (2008): Catalysts and barriers to cut flower export: A case study of Ethiopian floriculture industry. International Journal of Emerging Markets. Vol. 3 Iss: 2, pp. 216-235.
David T. (2002): The Bloom on the Rose, Looking into the Floriculture Industry Environmental Health perspectives Volume 110, Number 5. Focus, pp. 240-247.
Davison W. (2010): “Ethiopia Plans to Rent Out Belgium-Sized Land Area to Produce Cash Crops,” Bloomberg, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-10-26/ethiopia-plans-to-rent-out-belgium-sized-land-area-to-produce-cash-crops.html (accessed January 2011).
Dolan, C. S. and Sorby, K. (2003): Gender and Employment in High-Value Agriculture Industries, Agriculture and Rural Development Working Paper 7, World Bank.
Dolan, C.; M. Opondo, & S. Smith (2002): Gender, Rights and Participation in the Kenya Cut Flower Industry. NRI Report No. 2768. SSR Project No. R8007 2002-4.
Elaine S. (2006): Food Safety Management Systems Certification: Report on the ISO /Sadcstan Seminar on ISO 22000 – Food Safety Management Systems Held In Windhoek, Namibia. p. 8.
Ethiopian Horticultural Strategy (2007): Development of Strategy for Export oriented Horticulture in Ethiopia: Draft paper, February 2007.
Fatuma A. (2008): Social and Environmental Implication of Floriculture: a stakeholder perception Analysis at Holeta Area, Wolmera District, Oromia Region. Addis Ababa University. School of Graduate Studies. Environmental Science Program. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Frank B. and Cruz E. (2001): Flower for Justice, Implementing the International Code of Conduct, Friedrch Ebert Stiftung. 72 p.
Getu, M. (2009): Mizan Law Rev: Ethiopian Floriculture and its Impact on the Environment, Vol. 3, No 2. [Online Available].http://www.ajol.info/index.php/mlr/article/viewFile/54011/42554 [2011-04-28] 53.
Gebreeyesus, M. and Iizuka, M. (2010). ‘Discovery of the flower industry in Ethiopia: experimentation and coordination.
Habte, S. (2001): "Ethiopian cut-flower export industry and international market", Ethiopian Export Promotion Agency: Product Development and Market Research Directorate.
Hamrick, D. (2004): "Can Dutch roses survive", Folra Culture International, Vol. April.
International Flower Coordination (IFC) (2004): Guidelines for the socially and Environmentally Responsible Production of Cut Flowers, version 2.
International Labor Organization, (ILO), (2006): Summary of the Study Report on Decent Work in Floriculture Ethiopia; Presented on the National Consultative Workshop. >ILO: Geneva.
Gudeta DegytnuTilahun (2012). Socio-economic and Environmental Impact of Floriculture Industry in Ethiopia. Wageningen University (The Netherlands).
International Trade Center (ITC), (2001): Product Profile: Cut Flower and Foliage, Business Sector Roundtable Discussion Document, Brussels, 16 May.
Laws, N. (2006): "Ethiopia: the next production hot spot-floraculture", Flora Culture International, available at: www.floracultureintl.com/archive/articles/1858.asp. 54
Liemt, Gijsbert van (2000), “The world cut flower industry: Trends and prospects”, Working papers, International Labour Office, Geneva (International Labor Organization, 28 September 2000).
Lumpkin, T. A., K Weinberger and S. Moore, 2005. Increasing income through fruits and vegetable production: opportunities and challenges. Marrakech, Morocco. 10p.
Nigussie K. (2009): Floriculture Industry in Ethiopia: Trends, Prospects and Challenges, Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary medicine, August, 2006, Ethiopian Investment agency, Horti-Flora Data Base raw data, June 10, 2009.
Norma M. and Silvia P. (2005): Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: The Cut Flower Industry; Case Study, Northern Sierra of Ecuador. P. 9-20.
Pesticide Action Network Updates Service (PANUPS), (2002): Floriculture: Pesticides, Worker Health and Code of Conduct, June 12.
The Embassy of Japan in Ethiopia (2008), A Series of Studies in Industries in Ethiopia, March 2008.
Uganda Workers’ Education Association (UWEA) (2006): “Promoting Women Workers’ Rights: African Horticulture.” Progress Research Report Presented to “Women Working World Wide Regional Workshop.” 28th -31st March 2006. Kampala, Uganda.
Zewdie B. (2007): Export Marketing, Customs and Bank Clearing Operations of Floriculture in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa University School of Graduate Studies. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.