Molecular and Imaging Diagnostic Techniques for Urinary Tract Infections: Modern Approaches
American Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 45-51
Received: Aug. 19, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 7, 2017; Published: Oct. 17, 2017
Views 1039      Downloads 34
Authors
Bobai Mathew, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Ugboko Harriet, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Covenant University, Canaanland, Ota, Nigeria
Kadiri Olobo Sunday, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Dutse, Dutse, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
In developing countries, the frequent failure of the available phenotypic approaches for laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infections in providing results at the point where medical care is mostly required, becomes a major barrier to efficient antibiotic treatment and management of urinary tract infections in the public health sector. This review therefore focuses on molecular and imaging diagnostic techniques for urinary tract infection as rapid and effective modern approaches requires in health care delivery. Currently, available laboratory diagnoses of urinary tract infection in developing countries are mostly phenotypic approaches, and takes not less than two-four days before completion and result made available for appropriate treatment. From literature, it is apparent that these old-century approaches produce portion of patients’ result that does not fit the true picture; and the techniques had been found with more disadvantages than advantages. Molecular approaches are now emerging as modern laboratory test techniques which enable rapid and effective diagnosis of urinary tract infection with Biosensor, Microfluidics, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and other integrated platforms technologies. These emerging technologies could improve urinary tract infection diagnosis via direct pathogen detection from urine samples, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing, high precision and point of care testing in public health sector. Imaging techniques have also been so useful in identifying risk factors and abnormalities that can be modified; to decrease likelihood of recurrent (upper) UTI; and to reduce risk of renal scarring. These approaches however, had proved so successful that seems they will replace old-century testing methods, and hence, provides efficient antibiotic treatment and management; therefore, saving health care costs and valuable diagnosis time.
Keywords
UTI, Molecular, Imaging, Laboratory, Diagnostic Techniques, Point of Care
To cite this article
Bobai Mathew, Ugboko Harriet, Kadiri Olobo Sunday, Molecular and Imaging Diagnostic Techniques for Urinary Tract Infections: Modern Approaches, American Journal of Laboratory Medicine. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 45-51. doi: 10.11648/j.ajlm.20170204.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Najar M. S., Saldanha C. L., and Banday K. A. Approach to urinary tract infections. Indian Journal of Nephrology, 2009; 19(4): 129–139.
[2]
T Carolin E. G., Gift Norman, G. R., Devashri M., ata R. Treatment of uncomplicated symptomatic urinary tract infections: Resistance patterns and misuse of antibiotics. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 2015; 4(3): 416–421. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.161342.
[3]
Wai L. C. Rapid Laboratory Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infectious Made Quicker www.in-pharmatechnologist.com/processing-QC/Rapid-Lab-Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection, 2006; (Accessed 0n 09/08/2017).
[4]
Cheesbrough Monica. District Laboratory Practice in tropical Countries part 1, 2004: pp 236 – 281, 239 – 390.
[5]
Michael D., Kathleen M. E., Linda M., Dairiki S., Niaz B., Tza-Huei W., et al. New and developing diagnostic technologies for urinary tract infections. Nature Reviews Urology, 2017; 14, 296-310, doi: 10.1038/nrurol. 2017.20.
[6]
Kathleen. M. E., Wong. P. K., Liao. J. C. Biosensor diagnosis of Urinary Tract infections: a path to better treatment? Trends Pharmarcol Sci., 2011; 32(6): 330-336.
[7]
Chen, C. H., Lu. Y., Sin M. L., Mah. K. E., Zhang. D. D., Gau. V., et al. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing using High Surface to Volume Ratio Microchannels; Analytical Chemistry, 2010; 82 (12): 483-4847.
[8]
Signe M. Sørensen, Henrik C. Schønheyder, Henrik Nielsen. The role of imaging of the urinary tract in patients with urosepsis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2013; 17 (2013) e299–e303.
[9]
Eichner S. F., Timpe E. M. Urinary-based ovulation and pregnancy: point-of-care testing. Ann Pharmacother., 2004; 38: 325–331.
[10]
Rider TH, Petrovick. M. S., Nargi. F. E., Harper. J. D., Schwoebel. E. D., Mathews R. H. et Al. A B cell-based sensor for rapid identification of pathogens. Science, 2003; 301: 213–215.
[11]
Drummond T. G., Hill M. G., Barton J. K. Electrochemical DNA sensors. Nature Biotechnology, 2003; 21: 1192–1199.
[12]
Oh K. J., Cash. K. J., Plasco. K. W. Beyond molecular beacons: optical sensors based on the binding-induced folding of proteins and polypeptides. Chemistry, 2009; 15: 2244–2251.
[13]
Hunt H. K., Armani A. M. Label-free biological and chemical sensors. Nanoscale, 2010; 2: 1544–1559.
[14]
Llandro J., Palfreyman. J. J., Lonescu. A., Barnes C. H. Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review. Med Biol. Eng. Comput., 2010; 48: 977–998.
[15]
Ronkainen NJ, Halsall H. B., Heinema W. R. Electrochemical biosensors. Chem Soc Rev. 2010; 39: 1747–1763.
[16]
Liao J. C., Mastali M., Gau. V., Suchard. M. A., Moller A. K., Bruckner. D. A., et al. Use of electrochemical DNA biosensors for rapid molecular identification of uropathogens in clinical urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol, 2006; 44: 561–570.
[17]
Liao J. C., Mastali. M., Li. Y., Gau. V., Suchard M. A., Babbitt. J., et al. Development of an advanced electrochemical DNA biosensor for bacterial pathogen detection. J Mol Diagn., 2007; 9: 158–168.
[18]
Mach K. E., Du. C. B., Phull. H., Haake. D. A., Shih M., Baron. E. J., et al. Multiplex pathogen identification for polymicrobial urinary tract infections using biosensor technology: a prospective clinical study. J Urol., 2009; 182: 2735–2741.
[19]
Mach K. E., Mohan. R., Baron. E. J., Shih. M. C., Gau. V., Wong. P. K., et al. A Biosensor Platform for Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Directly from Clinical Samples. Journal of Urology, 2011; 185(1): 148-153.
[20]
Chaki N. K., Vijayam K. O. Self-assembled monolayers as a tunable platform for biosensor applications. Biosens Bioelectron, 2002; 17: 1–12.
[21]
Pan Y., Sonn. G. A., Sin. M. L., Mach. K. E., Shih. M. C., Gau. V., et al. Electrochemical Immunosensor Detection of Urinary Lactoferrin in Clinical Samples for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2010; 26(2): 649-654.
[22]
DeLong E. F., Wickham G. S., Pace. N. R. Phylogenetic stains: ribosomal RNA-based probes for the identification of single cells. Science, 1989; 243: 1360–1363.
[23]
Woo P. C., Lau. S. K., Teng. J. L., Tse. H., Yuen. K. Y. Then and now: use of 16S rDNA gene sequencing for bacterial identification and discovery of novel bacteria in clinical microbiology laboratories. Clin Microbiol Infect., 2008; 14: 908–934.
[24]
Lawi W. Wilta C., Snyder S. T., Wei F., Wong D., Wong K. P. et al. A Micro Fluidic Cartridge System for Multiplexed Clinical Analysis, JALA Chartott esv Va, 2009; 14: 407-412.
[25]
Boehme C. C., Nabeta. P., Hillemann. D., Nicol. M. P., Shenai. S., Krapp. F., et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. N Engl J Med., 2010; 363: 1005–1015.
[26]
Lehmann L. E., Hauser S., Malinka T., Klaschik S., Stuber F., Book M. Real-time polymerase chain-reaction detection of pathogens is feasible to supplement the diagnostic sequence for urinary tract infections. BJU Int. 2010; 106: 114–120.
[27]
Lehmann L. E., Hauser. S., Malinka. T., Klaschik. S., Weber. S. U., Schew. J., et al. Rapid Qualitative Urinary Tract Infection Pathogen Identification by Septi Fast Real-Time PCR. Plos One, 2011; 6(2): e17146.
[28]
Anneke Z., Lieuwe R., Gerda B., Jacobus M. O. Molecular Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections by Semi-Quantitative Detection of Uropathogens in a Routine Clinical Hospital Setting. PLos one, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150755.
[29]
Kate Marusina. Solution Provides Address Need for Increased Speed, Reduced Cost, and Easier Assess: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News Articles, 2010; 30(16): 3.
[30]
Mariella R. Sample preparation: the weak link in microfluidics-based biodetection. Biomed Microdevices, 2008; 10: 777–784.
[31]
Feldman H. C., Sigurdson. M., Meinhart. C. D. AC electrothermal enhancement of hetergeneous assays in microfluidics. Lab on a Chip., 2007; 7: 1553-1559.
[32]
Liu J., Hansen. C., Quake S. R. Solving the “world-to-chip” interface problem with a microfluidic matrix. Anal Chem., 2003; 75: 4718–4723.
[33]
Melin J., Quake S. R. Microfluidic large-scale integration: the evolution of design rules for biological automation. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct., 2007; 36: 213–231.
[34]
Stone H. A., Strook. A. D., Ajdari. A. Engineering flows in small devices: Microfluidics toward a lab-on-a-chip. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 2004; 36: 381–411.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186