Evaluation of Trypanocidal Activity of Bidens pilosa and Physalis peruviana Against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
American Journal of Laboratory Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 69-73
Received: Jan. 10, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 20, 2017; Published: Oct. 24, 2017
Views 2130      Downloads 125
Lilian Mwende Mwaniki, Biotechnology Research Institute, in Biochemistry Division (Tissue Culture and Protozology Section), Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Nairobi, Kenya
John Mokua Mose, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kenya Methodist University, Nairobi, Kenya
Titus Mutwiri, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kenya Methodist University, Nairobi, Kenya
James Mulinge Mbithi, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kenya Methodist University, Nairobi, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan disease that causes death and morbidity to man, and also severely limits livestock productivity in endemic areas. It is caused by different species of trypanosomes that occur in Africa, South America and Asia. Although chemotherapy is the main method of trypanosomiasis control, the few drugs in the market are faced with challenges of drug resistance, high toxicity and very costly. There is also no likelihood of a vaccine to control new outbreaks and there are no new drugs in the market. Herbal medicines are increasingly being used as an alternative solution to the control of trypanosomiasis in endemic areas. These are cost effective and economic friendly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate trypanocidal activity of Bidens Pilosa and Physalis peruviana using in-vitro and in-vivo protocols. The in-vitro trials are carried out using 96 well plates where the trypanocidal activities of the plant extracts were evaluated by calculating the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). Toxicity of the herbal extract was determined by monitoring survival, weight change, lethargy and difficulty in breathing. Parasitemia development after extract administration was used as parameters to test the test compound for trypanocidal activity. In vitro results revealed that bidens pilosa had the highest activity with an MIC of 125µg/ml after 48 hours of incubation against Trypanosoma brucei rhodensiense isolated from a patient in busia (KETRI 3684). Toxicity results showed that a dosage level of above 1000mg/kg body weight (highest toxicity trial dose used) of bidens pilosa caused clinical signs such as difficulty in breathing, lethargy, raised hair, loss of weight and death within five days. In-vivo results revealed that Bidens pilosa had some trypanocidal effect but did not perform better than the standard drugs. It is recommend that repeat therapy could be done to clear the parasites completely. Combined therapy of bidens pilosa and physalis peruviana was recommended to see if results can create a rationale for combination therapy in elimination of the parasites. This study has showed that Bidens pilosa and Physalis peruviana have trypanocidal potential.
African Trypanosomosis, Medicinal Plants, Anti-trypanosomal Activity
To cite this article
Lilian Mwende Mwaniki, John Mokua Mose, Titus Mutwiri, James Mulinge Mbithi, Evaluation of Trypanocidal Activity of Bidens pilosa and Physalis peruviana Against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, American Journal of Laboratory Medicine. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2017, pp. 69-73. doi: 10.11648/j.ajlm.20170204.15
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
F. A. Kuzoe, “Current situation of African Trypanosomiasis,” Acta tropica. Vol. 54, no. (3-4), pp. 153-162, 1986.
H. W. Thomas and A. Breinl, “Trypanosomes, Trypanosomiasis and Sleeping sickness; pathology and Treatment,” Liverpool School. Trop. Med. Memoir. Vol. 16, pp. 1-96, 1905.
E. pays and B. Vanhollebeke, “Human innate Immunity against African trypanosomes,” Current Opinions in Immunology. Vol. 21, pp. 493-498, 2009.
M. Bentivoglio, G. Grassi-Zucconi and K. Kristensson, “From trypanosomes to the nervous system, from molecules to behavior: a survey, on BMHJGNMHGFNMHGF the occasion of the 90th anniversary of Castellani’s discovery of the parasites in sleeping sickness,” Ital. J. Neurol. Sci. vol. 15, pp. 77–89, 1994.
P de Raadt, “The history of sleeping sickness,” World Health Org. 2005. http://www.who.int/trypanosomiasis_african/country/history/en/print.html
G. Hide, “History of sleeping sickness in East Africa,” Clin Microbiol Rev. vol. 12, pp. 112–125, 1999.
World Health Organization, “African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness),” World Health Organ Fact Sheet; 2006. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs259/en/
D. Steverding, “The history of African trypanosomiasis,” Parasites & Vectors. Vol. 1, no. 3, 2008.
D. H. Molyneux, V. Pentreath and F. Doua, “African trypanosomiasis in man. In: Cook GC, editor. Manson's Tropical Diseases. 20. London: W. B. Saunders Company Ltd; pp. 1171–1196, 1996.
T. M. Leach and C. J Roberts, “Present status of chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis of animal trypanosomiasis in the eastern hemisphere, “Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Vol. 13, pp. 91–147, 1981.
N. Nwude, “Ethnoveterinary Pharmacology and Ethnoveterinary practices in Nigeria- An overview. Paper presented at the Inaugural Review and Planning Workshop on Nationally Co-or-dinated Research Programme on Livestock Diseases NVRI, Vol, 24 March 1997.
N. Nwude, M. A. Ibrahim, “Plants used in traditional veterinary in Nigeria,” Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics vol. 3, pp. 261–273, 1980.
H. Sara, O. Frederik, B. Reto, A. Victor, and Q. L. Joelle, “In vitro Antitrypanosomal Activity of Ethnopharmacologically Selected Beninese Plants,” J. Ethnopharmacol. Vol. 91, pp. 37–42, 2004.
M. A. Ibrahim, A. Mohammeda, M. B. Isah, A. B. Aliyu, “Anti-trypanosomal activity of African medicinal plants: A review update,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 26–54, 2014.
S. Hoet, F. Opperdoes, R. Brun, V. Adjakidjé, J. Quetin-Leclercq, “Invitro antitrypanosomal activity of ethnopharmacologically selected Beninese plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Vol. 911, pp. 37–42, 2004a.
S. Hoet, F. Opperdoes, R. Brun, J. Quetin-Leclercq, “Natural products against African trypanosomes: a step towards new drugs,” Natural Product Reports. Vol. 21, pp. 353–364, 2004b.
S. Hoet, L. Pieters, G. G. Muccioli, J. L. Habib-Jiwan, F. R. Opperdoes, J. Quetin- Leclercq, “Antitrypanosomal activity of triterpenoids and sterols fromthe leaves of Strychnos spinosa and related compounds,” Journal of Natural Products vol. 70, pp. 1360–1363, 2007.
P. C Kimani, PK Gathumbi, K Ndungu, J Auma, JJ Ngeranwa, DK Masiga, “Evaluation of trypanocidal activity of selected medicinal plants in Kenya against Trypanosoma Evansi,” Kenya Veterinarian. Vol 37, no 1, 2013.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186