Assessment of Urban Governance Using UN-Habitat Urban Governance Index: A Case Study of Tehsil Municipal Administrations of Punjab, Pakistan
Urban and Regional Planning
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 17-24
Received: May 16, 2017;
Accepted: Aug. 21, 2017;
Published: Sep. 11, 2017
Views 678 Downloads 59
Rizwan Ur Rehman, Department of Urban & Regional Planning, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
Abdul Waheed, Department of Urban & Regional Planning, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
Malik Asghar Naeem, Department of Urban & Regional Planning, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
UN HABITAT in 1999 launched “Global Campaign on Urban Governance” in order to support the implementation of the Habitat agenda goal of “sustainable human settlements development in an urbanizing world”. Under this campaign Urban Governance Index (UGI) was developed in 2004 to assess the level of governance at global and local level. The research has been undertaken to evaluate the existing situation of urban governance in local governments particularly Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMAs) in Punjab, Pakistan using the urban governance index. Data was collected through structured interviews, surveys and secondary sources regarding four sub-indexes of UGI comprising Effectivity, Equity, Participation and Accountability involving total 26 number of indicators. The results revealed the average UGI of the TMAs in Punjab as 0.40 on a scale of 0 to 1 which transpires quite poor condition of urban governance in Pakistan. The detailed results depicted the average Effectiveness and Equity sub index values as 0.32 and 0.31 respectively. A meagre value was recorded in case of Participation sub index as 0.02 which was primarily due to the absence of elected local governments. The Accountability Sub Index secured highest value and was recorded as 0.97 which shows strong prevalence of accountability in the TMAs. The highest UGI value was observed in cities of Attock and Murree in Northern Punjab which was calculated as 0.45. When Compared with UGI of 24 different cities of developing world, these cities stand at 22nd position which shows quite poor situation with regard to the urban governance. Research has also highlighted some key urban governance issues across TMAs of Punjab such as low revenue generation, absence of elected local government, lack of public and women participation and poor service delivery.
Rizwan Ur Rehman,
Malik Asghar Naeem,
Assessment of Urban Governance Using UN-Habitat Urban Governance Index: A Case Study of Tehsil Municipal Administrations of Punjab, Pakistan, Urban and Regional Planning.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2017, pp. 17-24.
UN, "World Urbanization Prospects-The 2014 Revision," United Nations, New York, 2014.
D. C. G. F. David E. Bloom, "Urbanization and the Wealth of Nations," Science, pp. 772-775, 2008.
FIG-Commission, "Rapid Urbanization and Mega Cities: The Need for Spatial Information Management," nternational Federation of Surveyors (FIG), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2010.
J. Pierre, "Models of Urban Governance: The institutional dimension of Urban Politics," Urban Affairs Review, pp. 372-396, 1999.
U. HABITAT, "The Global Campaign on Urban Governance," Nairobi, Kenya, 2000.
G. &. D. S. McGranahan, "Governance and getting the private sector to provide better and sanitation services to the urban poor," Human Settlement Discussion paper series, Theme water-2, 2006.
L. Moretto, "An application of th UN-HABITAT Urban Governance Index(UG): water supplies in a low-income community of the caracas Metropolitan Region," Habitat International, p. 435–444, 2015.
UN, "Public Governance Indicators: A Literature Review," UN, New York, 2007.
K. Stewart, "Designing good urban governance indicators: The importance of citizen participation and its evaluation in Greater Vancouver," Cities, p. 196–204, 2006.
F. L. a. M. M. Daniel Kaufmann, "Governance and the City: An Empirical Exploration into Global Determinants of Urban Performance," World Bank, 2004.
U. HABITAT, "Urban Governance Index-Conceptual Foundation & Field Test Report," UN HABITAT, 2004.
W. Bank, "Managing Development-The Governance Dimension," Washington DC, 1994.
S. Narang, "Disaggregating Governance Indicators: Why Local Governance is Important and How It Can Be Measured,," New Delhi, 2005.
U. HABITAT, "Global Campaingn on Urban Governance, Cocept Paper, 2nd Revised Edition," Nairobi, 2002a.
World Bank, "Governance and Development," World Bank, Washington, DC, 1992.
S. S. a. M. Ahmed, "Political and Administrative Structure of Local Bodies in Pakistan. A Case Study of City District Government Faisalabad," Berkeley Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 3, no. 6, 2013.
Punjab-Government, Punjab Local Government Ordinance, 2001.
LG&CD Department, "Local Government in Punjab," Govt. of Punjab, 2001.
F. E. Lange, "Urban Governance: An Essectial determiannt of city development?," World Vision Institute for Research and Developemnt, Germany, 2009.
Z. Shafiei, "Contested Understanding of Urban Governance-A Case Study of Tehran, Iran," Phd Thesis, Newcastle University, 2011.