Concepts for Urban Planning Towards Sustainability and Improved Habitability: Participation of Individual, Society, and Governance
Urban and Regional Planning
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 25-33
Received: Oct. 24, 2017;
Accepted: Nov. 7, 2017;
Published: Dec. 22, 2017
Views 345 Downloads 11
Saha Dauji, Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India
In modern urban life in developing countries like India, many issues are building up due to the irresponsible and careless behavior of the population and governance alike. The wheel of time cannot be turned back to eliminate the sources of these societal problems arising out of modernization. However, there are simple and easy steps which an individual or a residential or commercial society may take to alleviate these problems. It calls for a change in the mindset and slightly modified perspective to implement these changes. The objective here is to inculcate and adopt sustainable and environment friendly practices and habits by modern urban population so that the cities would become a better habitat for the human race in future. There are financial commitments to be made and here, local governance may offer tax rebates to offset the expenses incurred by individual / societies in adopting the eco-friendly lifestyles. Few concepts which may pave the way towards this goal have been discussed with reference to the Indian cities. This would call for educations and awareness, participation of individual and communities, the monitoring role by the governance with reward and penalty system, as the case may be. The concepts discussed are based on the life in Indian cities but could be applicable, in part or whole, for the cities in other developing countries of the world. The models presented here can be considered while planning the infrastructure and stipulations for new / developing cities by the government.
Concepts for Urban Planning Towards Sustainability and Improved Habitability: Participation of Individual, Society, and Governance, Urban and Regional Planning.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2017, pp. 25-33.
S. Milham, “Historical evidence that electrification caused the 20th century epidemic of diseases of civilization,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 74(2), pp. 337–345, 2010.
S. Milham, “Dirty Electricity, Cellular Phone Base Stations and neoplasia,” Science of the Total Environment, 412 -413, pp. 390, 2011.
G. Kumar, “Cell Tower Radiation,” Report submitted to DOT, New Delhi, December 2010 available on https://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/~mwave/GK-cell-tower-rad-report-DOT-Dec2010.pdf (last accessed on October 23, 2017).
Awareness Note on Mobile Tower Radiation and its Impact on Environment, Central Pollution Control Board, India, available on http://cpcb.nic.in/Note_Mobile_Tower_Radiation_UPCD_Div.pdf (last accessed on October 23, 2017).
S. J. Genuis, “Fielding a current idea: exploring the public health impact of electromagnetic radiation,” Public Health, vol. 122, pp. 113–124, 2008.
C. Hagelüken, “Improving metal returns and eco-efficiency in electronics recycling metals smelting and refining,” Electronics, pp. 218–223, May 2006.
G. Cecere, A. Martinelli, “Drivers of knowledge accumulation in electronic waste management: An analysis of publication data,” Research Policy, vol. 46, pp. 925–938, 2017.
P. Kiddee, R. Naidu, M. H. Wong, “Electronic waste management approaches: An overview,” Waste Management, vol. 33, pp. 1237–1250, 2013.
J. M. Czuczwa, R. A. Hites, “Environmental fate of combustion-generated polychlorinated dioxins and furans,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 18, pp. 444–450, 1984.
E. Williams, R. Kahhat, B. Allenby, E. Kavazajian, J. Kim, M. Xu, “Environmental, social and economic implications of global reuse and recycling of personal computers,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 42, pp. 6446–6454, 2008.
B. H. Robinson, “E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, pp. 183–191, 2009.
C. Molgaard, “Environmental impacts by disposal of plastic from municipal solid waste,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 15, pp. 5 l-63, 1995.
J. N. Hahladakis, C. A. Velis, R. Weber, E. Iacovidou, P. Purnell, “An overview of chemical additives present in plastics: Migration, release, fate and environmental impact during their use, disposal and recycling,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 344, pp. 179–199, 2018.
Rainwater Harvesting, by India Water Portal, available on http://www.indiawaterportal.org/topics/rainwater-harvesting (last accessed on October 23, 2017).
Rainwater Harvesting, by Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Board, available on http://www.mppcb.nic.in/rwh.htm (last accessed on October 23, 2017).
L. K. Singh, M. K. Jha, V. M. Chowdary, “Multi-criteria analysis and GIS modeling for identifying prospective water harvesting and artificial recharge sites for sustainable water supply,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 142, pp. 1436 - 1456, 2017.
T. M. Pinzon, J. Rieradevall, C. M. Gasol, X. Gabarrell, “Modelling for economic cost and environmental analysis of rainwater harvesting systems” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 87, pp. 613 – 626, 2015.
P. Singh, V. P Sharma, “Integrated Plastic Waste Management: Environmental and Improved Health Approaches,” Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol. 35 pp. 692 – 700, 2016.