A combination of intra-row spacings, sowing dates, and pesticides on cowpea damage and control caused by M. vitrata was carried out towards developing an integrated pest management of M. vitrata on cowpea. The experiment was laid out in split-split plot design. Intra-row spacing and sowing dates were respectively allocated to the main and sub-plot while pesticides were allocated to the sub-sub-plot. The treatments were randomized and replicated three times. Data collected were subjected to the analysis of variance and means were separated using LSD at 5%. The result showed that varying intra-row spacings did not have any significant effect (P>0.05) on cowpea flower damage by M. vitrata at 10 WAS in all the years and the combine except in 2016. Close spacing was observed to record the least flower damage. Early sowing was observed to significantly (P<0.05) recorded the highest percentage flower damage in all the years and the combine (22.95, 22.78 and 22.85). Pesticide treated plots (13.06, 13.06 and 11.67) significantly (P<0.05) recorded the least percentage flower damage compared with the control plots (26.30). The effect of pesticides was statistically similar, however plots treated with Cyper diforce during recorded the least percentage flower damage. There was no significant difference on the effect of varying intra-row spacing on percentage cowpea pod damaged by M. vitrata 10 WAS. However, delay in sowing to SD3 significantly recorded least percentage pod damage (4.89, 14.03 and 2.94) than early sowing SD1 (24.47, 30.14 and 12.74) which recorded the highest. The effect of pesticides showed that plots treated with MaviMNPV significantly (P<0.05) recorded the least percentage damage (6.69) compared with the control (13.08). However, treatments effects were statistically similar. The effect of varying sowing dates showed that sowing cowpea at SD3 significantly (P<0.05) reduce dried cowpea pod damage at harvest (5.55% and 6.81%) than early sowing SD1 (12.85% and 10.61%) during 2016 and the combine respectively. It is therefore recommended that varying sowing date and use of Cyper diforce reduce cowpea damage in the study area and is hereby recommended.
Anna Mohammed Malgwi,
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