Please enter verification code
Testing for the Association Between ACE DD (RS1799752) Polymorphism and the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Hypertension
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2020, Pages: 50-59
Received: Nov. 30, 2020; Accepted: Dec. 7, 2020; Published: Dec. 31, 2020
Views 31      Downloads 28
Stanislav Alexandra Alina, Department of Biochemistry, Country Emergency Hospital, Clinical Laboratory Medical Analyzes, Giurgiu, Romania; Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania
Article Tools
Follow on us
High blood pressure (HBP) is a complex multifactorial condition which has a polygenic predisposition. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the candidate genes for HBP, and the ACE ID polymorphism with DD genotype presents a high risk for myocardial infarction, obesity (OB), stroke, type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), diabetic nephropathy. The purpose of the study is to identify the high risk of developing MS in ACE DD gene (RS1799752) on the basis of clinical data, biochemical laboratory investigations, genotyping and sequencing of ACE gene in patients with HBP, by using the mathematical algorithm ANOVA One Way as a linear model, with the help of the MDR, Graph Pad Prism and MATLAB software. This study includes 68 subjects, selected from Giurgiu County Emergency Hospital based on clinical data, biochemical investigations, RFLP-PCR genotyping and Advanced NGx sequencing of the ACE gene with the DD genotype to identify the increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with hypertension. The results was taken by using as a linear model the mathematical algorithm ANOVA One Way using the programs MDR, Graph Pad Prism and MATLAB. In conclusion the ACE DD polymorphism is significantly associated with MS in patients with hypertension.
ACE Gene, DD Genotype, Metabolic Syndrome, Hypertension
To cite this article
Stanislav Alexandra Alina, Testing for the Association Between ACE DD (RS1799752) Polymorphism and the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Hypertension, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2020, pp. 50-59. doi: 10.11648/j.bmb.20200504.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
A. R. Ajala, S. S. Almeida, M. Rangel, Z. Palomino, M. Wany L. Strufaldi, R. F. Puccini, R. C. Araujo, D. E. Casarini, M. C. P. Franco, Association of ACE Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism With Birth Weight, Blood Pressure Levels, and ACE Activity in Healthy Children, American Journal of Hypertension, Volume 25, Issue 7, July 2012,, Published: 01 July 2012,, pp. 827–832.
N. Arkhipova, E. Popova, L. Grigorieva, 2014, The angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism in different ethnic groups of geriatric age living in the Far North 2014., SciRes. Vol. 6, Nr. 5., 426-431 (2014) Health, 2014, pp. 426- 431.
F. G. Bouwman, Jolanda M. A. Boer, Sandra Imholz, P. Wang, W. M. Monique Verschuren, M. E. T. Dollé, E. C. M. Mariman, Gender-specific genetic associations of polymorphisms in ACE, AKR1C2, FTO and MMP2 with weight gain over a 10-year period, Genes & Nutrition, volume 9, Article number: 434 (2014) 5, Springer Link, FPublished: 17 October 2014, pp. 2, 4.
F. Cambien, F. Alhenc-Gelas, B. Herbeth, J. L. Andre, R. Rakotovao, M. F. Gonzales, J. Allegrini, C. Bloch, Familial resemblance of plasma angiotensin-convertining enzyme level: the Nancy study. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 43: 1988. 1988. pp. 774-780.
S. Chanda, Molecular Markers: RFLP AFLP RAPD SNP Procedure barefoot farmbooks, Barefoot farmbooks,, March 22, 2018, pp. 1.
D., Cimponeriu D., Suport de curs Genetica umană, Facultatea de Biologie, Universitatea din București, 2013, pp. 1, 2, 3, 4
E. Ciaglia, COVID-19 Infection and Circulating ACE2 Levels: Protective Role in Women and Children, Front. Pediatr., 23 April 2020,,, pp. 2-5
M. Covic, Genomica hipertensiunii arteriale – o nouă cale pentru descifrarea patogeniei moleculare a bolii, Viața medicală, ARHIVA | 2012 | AUGUST | NUMARUL 30 (1176), pp. 1.
R. Cârmaciu, C. Th. Niculescu, L. Torsan, Anatomia și fiziologia omului îndrumător pentru elevi, Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 1983, pp. 125.
C. Dumitrache, Endocrinologie... de la A la Z-dicţionar enciclopedic Editura Naţional, Bucureşti, 2008, pp. 158, 159, 160, 257-258, 380, 382, 461, 526, 527, 530, 534, 534-535, 714-715.
D. D. Farcaș, 1979, Calculatorul electronic și gândirea umană, Editura Albatros București, 1979, pp. 238.
L. W. Hahn, M. D. Ritchie, J. H. Moore, Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction software detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, Bioinformatics, Vol. 19, No 3, 2003, pp. 376-382.
D. E. Hinkle, W. Wiersma, S. G. Jurs, 1994, Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences (3rd.). Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company., 1994, pp. 1, 3, 4.
C. Hui, X. Shenghua, R. Xuan, 2014, Evaluating the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Based on an Artificial Intelligence Model, Hindawi Publishing Corporation Abstract and Applied Analysis Volume 2014, Article ID 207268, Hindawi, pp. 12.
M. Niculescu, Advanced Nutrigenomics LLC, 2016., pp. 2,
P. Ramaraj, S. P. Kessler, C. Colmenares, G. C. Sen, 1998, Selective restoration of male fertility in mice lacking angiotensin-converting enzymes by sperm-specific expression of the testicular isozyme. J. Clin. Invest. 102:, 1998, pp. 371-378.
B. Riga, C. Hubert, F. Alhenc-Gelas, F. Cambien, P. Corvol, F. Soubrier, An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. J. Clin. Invest. 86, 1990, pp. 1343-1346.
L. Salazar-Sanchez, J. J. Madrigal-Sanchez, P. Gonzalez-Martinez, E. Paredes, L. Vera-Gamboa, N. P. Ruz, N. Valadez-Gonzalez, Open access peer-reviewed chapter, ACE I/D (Rs1799752), MTHFR C677T (Rs1801133), and CCR5 D32 (Rs333) Genes and their Association with Hypertension and Diabetic Nephropathy in Urban Areas of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Mexico, Submitted: October 22nd 2015, Reviewed: June 7th 2016Published: September 14th 2016, DOI: 10.5772/64548, Home Essential Hypertension,, pp. 2, 3.
R. Samant, S. Rao, Evaluation of Artificial Neural Networks in Prediction of Esential Hypertension, International Journal of Computer Applications 0975-8887, Volume 81, Nr. 12, November 2013, pp. 34, 35, 37.
F. Sava, 2002, Pagina de statistică socială.,, pag. 1, 12.
F. A. Saved-Tabatabaei, B. A. Oostra, A. Isaacs, CM. Van Duijn, J. C. Witteman, ACE polymorphisms, Review Circulation Research, 2006: 98: 2006, pp. 1123-1133.
M. Sedehi, Y. Mehrabi, A. Kazemnejad, F. Hadaegh, Comparation of Artificial Neural Network, Logistic Regression and Discriminant Analysis Methods in Prediction of Metabolic Syndrome, Iranian Journal of Endocrinology&Metabolism, Vol. 11, No. 6 March 2010, pp. 1.
A. Segonds-Pichon, Version 2017-02, Introduction to Statistics with Graph Pad Prism, This manual is 2008-17, Babraham Bioinformatics,, pp. 8, 9, 41, 42.
C. Sun, A-L. Ponsonby, J. B. Carlin, M. Bui, C. G. Magnussen, T. L. Burns, T. Lehtimaki, N. H. Wardrop, M. Juonala, J. S. A. Viikari, A. J. Venn, O. T. Raitakari, T. Dwyer, Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism: evidence of gene—environment interaction effects on adult blood pressure and hypertension status in adulthood,, J Hypertens. available in PMC 2019 May 1. J Hypertens. 2018 Nov; 36 (11): 2168–2176. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001816, PMCID: PMC6452450,, pp. 2168-2176.
T. Vassu-Dimov, O. Csutak, I. Stoica, F. Muşat, Genetica microorganismelor şi inginerie genetică microbiană-Note de curs şi tehnici de laborator., Editura Petrion, Bucureşti, 2001, pp. 76-82.
E. Villard, L. Tiret, S. Visvikis, R. Rakotovao, F. Cambien, F. Soubrier, Identification of new polymorphisms of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, and study of their relationship to plasma ACE levels by two-QTL segregation-linkage analysis, Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Jun; 58 (6), pp. 1268-1278.
MDR software versiunea 3.0.2 (20.02.2013 15: 27, versiune3.0.2
Graph Pad Prism 7 versiunea 7.03
Software MATLAB R2009b versiunea 7.9.0529
[31], DNeasy Blood& Tissue Handbook, Qiagen, July 2006.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186