Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in Bulls of Borana Origin Quarantined in Adama
International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology
Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2016, Pages: 1-10
Received: Jun. 2, 2016; Accepted: Jul. 4, 2016; Published: Oct. 9, 2016
Views 2898      Downloads 99
Akinaw Wagari, College of Medical and Health Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Across sectional study of FMD was conducted on apparently healthy bulls which were quarantined for export in Adama from December 2011 to May 2012, a total of 1071 blood sample were collected from the jugular vein of individual animals. Serological investigation was performed using 3ABC ELISA kit. As a result the over-all prevalence of FMD infection was 10.8% (116/1071), FMD is the most important livestock disease in terms of economic impact on export earnings; about US$ 71026.8 losses observed in the current study. The result of the current findings indicates that FMD is prevalent in bulls for export from Ethiopia, thus posing major loss in the country’s economy. This warrants the necessity of further study of the epidemiology of the disease nation-wide. Investigation of the strains of the virus, climate, and host factors can assist in identifying amenable control options.
Bulls, ELISA, Ethiopia, Export, FMD, Seroprevalence
To cite this article
Akinaw Wagari, Seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease in Bulls of Borana Origin Quarantined in Adama, International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbbmb.20160101.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Asseged, B. (2005): Review of Foot and Mouth disease: An in depth discourse of Global, Sub-Saharan and Ethiopian status; Addis Ababa University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Research, and Graduate studies. Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Pp. 3-49.
Bastos, A. D. S., Boshoff, C. I., Keet, D. F., Bengis, R. G and Thomson, G. R. (2000): Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus between African buffalo (Synceruscaffer) and impala (Aepycerosmelampus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Epidemiology and Infection. 124: 591-598.
Belsham, G. J. (1993): Distinctive features of foot-and-mouth disease virus, a member of the picornavirus family; aspects of virus protein synthesis, protein processing, and structure. Progress in Biophys. Molecular Biology. 60:241-260.
Blood, D. C., Radostits, O. M., and Henderson, J. A. (1994): Veterinary Medicine, a textbook of disease of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses, 6th edition. The English Language Book Society and Bailliere Tindall. Pp: 730-746.
Burrow, R., Mann, J. A., Garland, J. M., Greig, A., Goodridge, D. (1981): The pathogenesis of natural and simulated natural foot-and-mouth disease infection in cattle. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 91: 599-609.
Catley, A. (1977): Adapting participatory appraisal (PA) for the veterinary Epidemiologist: PA tools for use in livestock disease data collection. SVEPM proceedings, Chester, Edinburgh, UK. Pp. 7-11.
Catley, A., Chibunda, R. T., Ranga, E., Makungu, S., Magayane, F. T., Magoma, G., Madege, M. J., Vosloo, W. (2004): Participatory diagnosis of heat intolerance syndrome in Cattle in Tanzania and Association with foot and mouth disease. Prev. Vet. Med. 65: 17 30.
Cooper, P. D., Agol V. I., Bachrach, H. L., Brown, F., Ghendon, Y., Gibbs, A. J., Gillespie, J. H., Lonbergholm, K., Mandel, B., Melnick, J. L., Monanty, S. B., Povey, R. C., Rueckert, R. R., Schaffer, F. C. and Tyrrell, D. A. J. (1978): Picornaviridae: Second report. Intervirology, 10:165-180.
Coppock, D. L. (1994): The Borana plateau of southern Ethiopia: Synthesis of Pastoral Research Development and change, 1980-1991. ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Pp. 15-33.
Desta, S. (1999): Diversification of Livestock assets for risk management in the Boranapastoral system of Southern Ethiopia, PhD thesis, Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Pp: 10-31.
Dejene, A. (2004): Foot and Mouth outbreak investigation in smallholder and Commercial Dairy Farms in and around Addis Ababa, DVM, Thesis, FVM, Debre Zeit. Pp: 30-39.
Diez, J., Davila, M., Escarmis, C., Mateu, M. G., Dominguez, Z. J., Perz, J. J., Giralt, E., Melero, A. and Domingo, E. (1990): Unique amino acid substitutions in the capsideproteins of foot and mouth disease virus from persistent infection in cell culture. Journal of Virology, 64:5519-5528.
Diego, A. D. E., Brocchi, E., Mackay, D. and Simone, F. (1997): The use of non- structural polyprotein 3ABC of FMD virus as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA to differentiate infected from vaccinated cattle. Archives of virology, 142: 2021-2033.
Donaldson, A. I. (1987): Investigations to determine the minimum aerosol doses of foot and mouth disease virus to infect sheep and cattle. Aerosols. Their generation, behavior and applications. First Conference Held at Loughborough University of Technology. Aerosol Society. Pp. 121-123.
Domingo, E., Escarmis, C., Martinez M. A., Martinez-Salas, E. and Mateu, M. G. (1992): Foot and mouth disease virus populations are quasispecies. Current Topics in Microbiology and immunology, 176: 33-47.
Domingo, E., Mateu, M. G., Martinez, M. A., Dopazo J., Moya A. and Sobrino, F. (1990): Genetic variability and antigenic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Applied Virology Research, 2: 233-266.
Eshetu, T. (2003): Participatory studies on heat intolerance syndrome associated with foot and mouth disease in indigenous cattle of Somali pastoral area in Shinille Zone, Ethiopia. DVM, Thesis, FVM, Debre Ziet. Pp. 10-15.
FAO/WFP (2005): Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Program; FAO Global Information and Early Warning System on food and Agriculture. Special Report of FAO/WFP Crop and food supply assessment mission to Ethiopia. Pp. 1-10.
Ferris, N. P (2004): FMD ELISA kit bench protocol: liquid phase blocking ELISA for Detection of FMD virus serotypes O, A C and SAT2 for Ethiopia. Institute for animal health, Pirbright laboratory, UK. Pp. 3-42.
Gelaye, E., Beyene, B., and Ayelet, G. (2001): Foot and mouth disease virus serotypes identified in Ethiopia, National Veterinary Institute, DebreZeit, Ethiopia. Pp. 1-5.
Garland, A. J. M. (1999): Vital elements for the successful control of foot and mouthdisease by vaccination. Vaccine, 17: 1760-77.
Gonzalez, M., Mateu, M. G., Martinez, M. A., Carrillo, C. and Sobrino, F. (1992): Comparison of capsid protein VP1 of the viruses used for the production and challenge of foot and mouth disease vaccines in Spain. Vaccine, 10: 732-734.
Grubman, M. J. and Mason, P. W. (2002): Prospects, including time frames, for improved foot and mouth disease vaccines. OIE Scientific and Technical Review, 21(3): 589-600.
Haydon, D. T., Samuel, A. R., Knowles, N. J. (2001): The generation and persistence of genetic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 51: 111-124.
Hamblin, C., Barnett, I. and Crowther, J. R. (1986a): A new enzyme linkedimmune-sorbent assay (ELSA) for the detection of antibodies against foot and mouth disease virus. Application. Journal of Immunological Methods, 93: 123-129.
Holland, J. J., Spindler, K., Horodyski, F., Grabeu, E., Nichol, S. and Vande pol, S. (1982): Rapid evolution of RNA genomes. Science, 215: 1577-1585.
Hughes, G. J., Mioulet, V., Kitching, R. P., Woolhouse, M. E. J., Andersen, S. and Donaldson, A. I. (2002): Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of sheep: implications for diagnosis and control. Veterinary Record, 150: 724-727.
James, A. D. and Rushton, J. (2002): The economics of foot and Mouth Disease. Rev. Sci. Tech. off. int. Epiz. 3: 637-644.
King, A. M. Q., Mc Cahon, D., Slade, W. R. and Newman, J. I. W. (1982): Recombination in RNA. Cell, 29: 921-928.
Kitching, R. P., Knowles, N. J., Samuel, A. R. and Donaldson A. I. (1989): Development for foot and mouth virus strain characterization. A review. Tropical Animal Health Production, 21:153-166.
Kitching, R. P. (1999): Foot and mouth disease: Current world situation. Vaccine, 17: 1772-1774.
Kitching, R. P. and Alexandersen, S. (2002): Clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: pigs. OIE Scientific and Technical Review, 21(3): 499-503.
Kitching, R. P. and Hughes, G. J. (2002): Clinical variation in foot-and-mouth disease: sheep and goats. OIE Scientific and Technical Review, 21(3): 505-510.
Kitching, R. P. (2002a): Clinical variation in foot and mouth disease: cattle. OIE Scientific and technical Review, 21(3): 513-517.
Kitching R. P. (1992): Foot and mouth disease. In: Viral diseases, edited by A. H. Andrews, R. W. Blowey, H. Boyd and R. G. Eddy. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, UK. Pp. 537-543.
Kitching, R. P. (1998): A recent history of foot-and-mouth disease. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 118: 89-108.
Knowles, N. J., and Samuel, A. R. (2003): Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus Research, 91: 65-80.
Leforban, Y. and Gerbier, G. (2002): Review of the status of foot-and-mouth disease and approach to control/eradication in Europe and Central Asia. OIE Scientific and Technical Review, 21 (3): 477-492
Leforaban, Y. (2005): Report of a mission on Foot and Mouth disease in Ethiopia, Proposals for a Strategic plan for a control program oriented to the export, 10-22 April 2005. Pp. 12-42.
Lelo, F., Ayieco, J., Makenzi, P., Muhia, N., Njeremani, D., Muiruri, H., Omollo, J. and Ochola, W. (1995): PRA filed handbook for participatory rural appraisal reactionares. PRA program, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Pp. 10-24.
Lewis, S. A., Morgan, D. O., Grubman, M. J. (1991): Expression, processing, and assembly of foot and mouth disease virus, capsid structure in heterologous systems: induction of a neutralizing antibody response in guinea pigs. Journal of Virology, 65: 6572-6580.
Mackay, D. K. J., Forsyth, M. A., Davies P. R., Berlinzania., Belsham, G. J., Flint, M. and Ryan, M. A. (1998): Differentiating infection from vaccination in foot and mouth disease using a panel of recombinant, non-structural proteins in ELISA. Vaccine, 16(5): 446-459.
Meyer, R. F., Pacciarini, M., Hilyard, E. J., Ferrari, S., Vakharia, V. N., Donini, G., Brocchi, E. and Molitor, T.W. (1994): Genetic variation of foot and mouth diseasevirus from field outbreaks to laboratory isolation. Virus Research, 32(3): 299-312.
Mulcahy, G., Gale, C., Robertson, P., Iyisan, S., Dimarchi, R.D. and Dole, T. R. (1990): Isotope responses of infected, Virus -vaccinated and peptide vaccinated cattle to cattle foot and mouth disease virus. Vaccine, 8: 249-256.
Murphy, F. A., Gibbs, E. P. J., Horzinek, M. C., Studdert, M. J. (1999): Veterinary Virology, 3rd edition. USA, Academic press. Pp. 412-421.
Mersie, A., Tafesse, B., Getahun, F. and Teklu, W. (1992): Losses from foot and mouth disease in a mixed farming area of eastern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 24 (3): 144.
Mckercher, P. D., and Callis, J. J. (1983): Residual Viruses in Fresh and Cured Meat. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Livestock Conservation Institute, pp. 143-146.
Martel, J. L. (1974): Foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia. Distribution of viral serotypes. Revued' Elevageet de Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 27(2): 169-175.
Mugenda, O. M. and Mugenda, A. G. (1999): Research Method: qualitative and quantitative approaches. ACTS press, Nairobi, Kenya. Pp. 197-208.
OIE. (2002): Reports on the animal health status and disease control methods. Office international des Epizooties (OIE), Paris, France. Pp. 131-132.
OIE. (2004): Manual of Diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (mammals, birds and bees): 5th edition, volume I. Office international des Epizooties (OIE), Paris, France. Pp. 111-128.
Radostits, O. M., Blood, D. C., Gay, C. C. (1994): Veterinary Medicine, 8th edition. London: Bailliere Tindall. Pp. 345-372.
Robert, P. J. and Bruce, A. P. (1981): Picornaviral structure and assembly. Microbiological Review, 45: 287-315.
Roeder, P. L., Abraham, G., Mebratu, G. Y. and Kitching, R. P. (1994): Foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia from 1988 to 1991. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 26(3): 163-167.
Sahle, M. (2004): An epidemiological study on the genetic relationships of foot and mouth disease viruses in east Africa. University of Pretoria, South Africa, Pretoria, PhD Thesis. Pp. 84-107.
Sahle, M., Dwarka, R. M., Venter, E. H. and Vosloo, W. (2004): Molecular epidemiology of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from cattle in Ethiopia between 1979-2001.Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, (In press).
Samina, I., Zichria, Z. R., and Ben, A. (1998): Homologous and heterologous antibody response of cattle and sheep after vaccination with foot and mouth disease and influenza virus Vaccine, 16: 551-557.
Samuel, A. R., Knowles, N.J. and Mackay, D. K. J. (1999): Genetic analysis of type O viruses responsible for epidemics of foot-and-mouth-disease in North Africa. Epidemiology and Infection, 122: 529-538.
Samuel, A. R. and Knowles, N. J. (2001a): Foot-and-mouth disease virus: Cause of the recent crisis for the UK livestock industry. Trends in Genetics, 17 (8): 421-424.
Samuel, A. R. and Knowles, N. J. (2001b): Foot-and-mouth disease type O viruses exhibit genetically and geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (Topotypes). Journal of General Virology, 82: 609-621.
Sangar, D. V., Clark, R. P., Carroll, A. R., Rowlands, D. J. and Clarke, B.E. (1988): Modification of the leader protein (Lb) of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 69: 2327-2333.
Sangare, O. (2002): Molecular Epidemiology of foot and mouth disease virus in West Africa., University of Pretoria, South Africa. PhD, thesis. Pp. 10-37.
Sangare, O., Bastos, A. D. S., Venter, E.H. and Vosloo, W. (2003): Retrospective genetic analysis of SAT-1 type foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in West Africa (1975-1981).Veterinary Microbiology, 93: 279-289.
Sanson, R. L., Liberona, H. and Morris, R.S. (1991): The use of geographical information system in the management of a foot and mouth disease epidemic. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 11: 309-313.
Sanz-Parra, A., Sobrino, F. and Ley, V. (1998): Infection with foot and mouth disease virus result in a rapid reduction of MHC class I surface expression. Journal of General Virology, 79:2327-2333.
Seigel, S. and Castellan, N. J. (1994): Non- Parametric statistics for behavioral science 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA Pp. 399.
Sellers, R. F. and Daggupaty, S. M. (1990): The epidemic of foot and mouth disease in Saskatchewan, Canada, 1951-1952, Canadian Journal of veterinary research, 54: 457-464.
SPSS (2002): Statistics Package for Social Sciences. Version 11. 5. SPSS Inc., 1989-2002 USA.
Thrusfiled, M. (1995): Veterinary Epidemiology, 2ndedition. UK: Blackwell science Ltd.
Tadesse, G. (2003): Participatory studies on Heat intolerance syndromes Associated with foot and mouth disease in indigenous cattle in Afar pastoral area of Ethiopia. Facultyof veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Debre Zeit DVM, Thesis. Pp. 18-21.
Thomson, G.R. (1994): Foot and mouth disease. In: Infectious diseases of livestock with special reference to Southern Africa, edited by J.A.W. Coetzer, G.R. Thomson. Cape Town, London, New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 825-992.
Vosloo, W., Bastos, A. D. S., Sangare O., Hargreaves, S.K. and Thomson, G. R. (2002): Review of the status and control of foot and mouth disease in sub-Saharan Africa. OIE Scientific and technical Review, 21 (3): 437-447.
Woodbury, E. L. (1995): A review of the possible mechanisms for the persistence of foot and mouth disease virus. Epidemiology and Infection, 114: 1-13.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186