International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2017, Pages: 71-76
Received: Aug. 31, 2017;
Accepted: Oct. 16, 2017;
Published: Nov. 22, 2017
Views 1502 Downloads 96
Fatokun Ayodeji Olakunle, Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria; Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), Abuja, Nigeria
Okwute Simon Koma, Department of Chemistry, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
Orishadipe Abayomi Theophilus, Chemistry Advanced Research Centre, Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), Abuja, Nigeria
The aim of this study was to examine the phytochemical constituents and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Waltherica indica Linn root extracts in solvents of different polarities (ethyl acetate, chloroform and chloroform: methanol (1:1). The experiment was conducted at the Chemistry Advanced Research Centre of Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Nigeria between November 2016 and January 2017. Clinical strains of five bacteria and three fungi isolates were utilized. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and chloroform: methanol (1:1) root extracts were tested at 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 μg/ml using the Agar well diffusion technique. The minimum inhibitory, minimum bactericidal and minimum fungicidal concentrations of each solvent extract were assessed. Phytochemical analysis was also performed using ethanol as the extraction solvent. The phytochemical compounds obtained in the methanol extracts where alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavanoids, phenolic acids, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Agar well diffusion used for sensitivity study of S. aureus, S. pneumonia, S. pyrogens, K. pneumonia, C. ulcerans, C. albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis with 10μg/ml ciprofloxacin and 30μg/ml fluconazole revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of Waltheria indica Linn gave 27±0.20 to 31±0.95mm zones of inhibition, whereas the chloroform extract gave an inhibitory range of 26±0.15 to 30±0.25mm while the chloroform: methanol extracts gave a 26±0.35 to 29±0.85mm zones of inhibition respectively in comparison to the 31±0.65 to 36±0.35mm obtained from the control. The minimal inhibitory content (MIC) of the ethyl acetate extracts was recorded at 0.25 mg/ml, while the MIC values for the chloroform and chloroform: methanol extracts were between 0.25 and 0.50 mg/ml respectively. The results obtained suggested that the studied plants possess anti-microbial spectrum aligned to the phyto-constituents.
Fatokun Ayodeji Olakunle,
Okwute Simon Koma,
Orishadipe Abayomi Theophilus,
Phytochemical Screening and in vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Waltheria indica Linn Root Extracts, International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2017, pp. 71-76.
Jones A. M., Govan J. R., Doherty C. J., Dodd M. E., Isalska B. J., Stanbridge T. N., and Webb A. K., (2001). Spread of a multi-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an adult cystic fibrosis. Lancet, 358: 557-558.
Chin Y. W., Balunas M. J., Chai H. B., and Kinghorn A. D., (2006). Drug discovery from natural sources. AAPS Journal, 8: 239-253.
Kishore, N., Mishra B. B., Tripathi V., and Tiwari V. K., (2009). Alkaloids as potential anti-tubercular agents. Fitoterapia, 80: 149-163.
Hepper F. N., and Keay R., (2000). History of the flora of West Tropical Africa. Niger. Field, 65: 141-148.
Olowokudejo J. D., Kadiri A. B., Travih V. A., (2008). An ethnobotanical survey of herbal markets and medicinal plants in Lagos. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12: 851-865.
Ayantunde A. A., Hiernaux P., Briejer M., Udo H., and Tabo R., (2009). Uses of local plant species by Agro-pastoralists in South-western Niger. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, 7: 53-66.
Stavri M., Piddock L. J. V., and Gibbons S., (2007). Bacterial efflux pump inhibitors from natural sources. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 59: 1247–1260.
Emmanuel S. A., Olajide O. O., Abubakar S., Idowu I. D., Orishadipe A. T., and Thomas S. A., (2014). Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of methanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera seeds. American Journal of Ethnomedicine, 1: 346-354.
Cheesbrough M., (2002). Reaction Isolates on Tropical Diseases: The Effects. Cambridge University press, London, 2: 76-100.
European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST), (2012) Version 2: 12.
Emmanuel S. A., Olajide O., Abubakar S., Akiode S. O., and Etuk-Udo G., (2016). Chemical Evaluation, Free Radical Scavenging Activities and Antimicrobial Evaluation of the Methanolic Extracts of Corn Silk (Zea mays). Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 9: 1-8.
Suffredini I. B., Sander H. S., Goncalves A. G., Reis A. O., Gales A. C., Varella A. D., and Younes R. N., (2004). Screening of anti-bacterial extracts from plants native to Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest and Atlantic forest. Brazilian journal of Medical and Biological research, 37: 379-384.
Hassan M. A., Oyewale A. O., Amupitan J. O., Abdullahi M. S., and Okonwo E. M., (2004). Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial investigation of crude extract of root bark of Deteriummi crocarpum. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Science, 29: 36-49.
Usman H., Abdulrahman F. K., and Ladan A. A., (2007). Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Tributus. L. (Zygophylaceae) Growing in Nigeria. Medwell Research Journal of Bioscence, 2: 244-247.
Maryam J., Bushra M., Abida Y., and Mir A. K., (2012). Pharmacological activities of selected plant species and their phytochemical analysis. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6: 5013-5022.
Okwu D. E., (2004). Phytochemicals and Vitamins Content of Indigeneous Species of Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment, 6: 30-37.
Okunade A. L., Elvin-Lewis M. P. F., and Lewis W. H., (2004). Natural anti-mycobacterial metabolites: current status. Phytochemistry, 65: 1017-1032.
Lim K., Sim K., Tan G., and Kama T., (2009). Four tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids and a taberpsychine derivative from a Malayan Tabernaemontana. Phytochemistry, 70: 1182-1186.
Vieira R. H. S. F., Rodrigues D. P., Goncalves F. A., Menezes F. G. R., Aragao J. S., and Sousa O. U., (2001). Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psdium guajava linn and Carica papaya linn) upon bacteria isolated form fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children. Revista deinstitute de medecina Tropical de Sao Paulo, 43: 145-148.
Cazarolli L. H., Zanatta L., Alberton E. H., Figueiredo M. S., Folador P., Damazio R. G., Pizzolatti M. G., and Silva F. R., (2008). Flavonoids: Prospective Drug Candidates. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 8: 1429–1440.
Cushnie T. P., and Lamb A. J., (2011). Recent advances in understanding the antibacterial properties of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 38: 99–107.
Plaper A., Golob M., Hafner I., Oblak M., Solmajer T., and Jerala R., (2003). Characterization of quercetin binding site on DNA gyrase. Biochemistry and Biophysics Research Communication, 306: 530–536.
Naoumkina M. A., Zhao Q., Gallego-Giraldo L., Dai X., Zhao P. X., and Dixon R. A., (2010). Genome-wide analysis of phenyl propanoid defence pathways. Molecular Plant Pathology, 11: 829–846.
Mishra A. K., Mishra A., Kehri H. K., Sharma B., and Pandey A. K., (2009). Inhibitory activity of Indian spice plant Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts against Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata, the pathogenic dematiaceous moulds. Annals Clinical Microbiology and Anti-microbiology, 8: 9.
Wu T., Zang X., He M., Pan S., and Xu X., (2013). Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids on their anti-Escherichia coli activity and inhibition of DNA gyrase. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61: 8185–8190.
Omojate G. C., Enwa F. O., Jewo A. O., Eze C. O., (2014). Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Actions of Phytochemicals against Enteric Pathogens – A Review. Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences, 2: 77-85.
Mabhiza D., Chitemerere T., and Mukanganyama S., (2016). Antibacterial Properties of Alkaloid Extracts from Callistemon citrinus and Vernonia adoensis against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 1: 1-7.
Newton S. M., Lau C., Gurch S. S., Besra G. S., and Wright C. W., (2002). The evaluation of forty-three plant species for in vitro anti-mycobacterial activities; isolation of active constituents from Psoralea corylifolia and Sanguinaria canadensis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79: 57–67.
Dahiya P., and Purkayastha S., (2012). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant bacteria from clinical isolates. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 74: 443–450.
Adebiyi A., Ayo R., Bello I., and Habila J., (2015). Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Tb Activity of Root Extracts of Guiera senegalensis (J. F. Gmel). American Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 3: 208-213.