International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology
Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 45-51
Received: Dec. 27, 2018;
Accepted: Jan. 21, 2019;
Published: Feb. 14, 2019
Views 303 Downloads 34
Jamila Ahmed Mashi, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Muhammad Kano Atiku, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Muntari Bala, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Amina Muhammad Sa’id, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Ramatu Iya Idris, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Abba Babandi, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Kamaluddeen Babagana, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Diabetes is a heterogeneous disorder with multiple etiologies resulting in major healthcare problem such as risk of heart disease, stroke and micro-vascular complications such as blindness, renal failure and peripheral neuropathy. The research was aimed at evaluating the antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic potentials of ethyl acetate fraction of Persea americana leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Persea americana leaf was extracted by soxhlet extraction for 24hrs and concentrated in vacuo to yield Persea americana extract (PAE). Elemental compositional analysis of the extract was determine using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal administration of alloxan. Blood glucose levels determined using ACCUCHEK. Hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by measuring serum glucose level and insulin level. Hypolipidemic activity was evaluated by measuring various biochemical parameters like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein. Elemental compositional analysis of the Fraction reveals the presence of Zn, Cr, Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn. The levels of fasting blood glucose were found to decrease significantly in the treated groups in a dose dependent pattern with reversal in body weight lost as well as significant increase in serum insulin level compared with the diabetic control group. The results showed that serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein levels were statistically lower in the treated groups. The observed hypoglycaemic alongside with hypolipidemic effect can be associated with the levels of trace elements present in the extract. The present study support the traditional claim in the use of ethyl acetate extract of P. americana leaf as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic agent.
Jamila Ahmed Mashi,
Muhammad Kano Atiku,
Amina Muhammad Sa’id,
Ramatu Iya Idris,
Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Properties of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of P. americana Leaf in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats, International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2018, pp. 45-51.
Adewole, S. O. and J. A. O. Ojewole, (2007). Insulin-induced immunohistochemical and morphological changes in pancreatic β-cells of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, 29 (7): 447–455.
Edem, D. O. (2009). Hypoglycaemic effects of ethanolic extracts of alligator pear seeds (Persea americana Mill) in rats. European Journal of Scientific Research, 33 (4): 669-678.
Moquette, B. and V. Moor (2017). Antioxidant and synergistic anti diabetic activity of a three plant preparation used in cameroon folk medicine. International scholarly research notices: 1-7.
Fasola, T., B. Ukwenya, A. Adetokunbo, Oyagbemi, T. O. Omobowale, T. O. Ajibade, (2016). Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Croton lobatus L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 5 (4): 364-371.
Nagar, J. C. and L. S. Chauhan (2016). Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Leaf Extracts of Breynia vitisidaea in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Pharmacognosy Journal, 8 (3): 259-263.
Radhika, T., P. Mahendar, A. Venkatesham, A. R. N. Reddy, Y. N. Reddy, A. Sadanandam (2010). Hypoglycemic activity of red kino tree in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharmacol, 6 (3): 301-5.
Ranjan, V. and M. Vats (2017). A Comprehensive Review on Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants. Int J Ayu Pharm Chem, 7 (3): 145-148.
Jokar, N. K., S. A. Noorhosseini, M. S. Allahyari and C. A. Damalas (2017). Consumers’ acceptance of medicinal herbs: An application of the technology acceptance model (TAM). J Ethnopharmacol, 207: 203–210.
Jütte, R., M. Heinrich, A. Helmstädter, J. Langhorst, G. Meng, W. Niebling and H. J. Trampisch (2017). Herbal medicinal products Evidence and tradition from a historical perspective. J Ethnopharmacol.; 207: 220–225.
Yea, S. J., B. Y. Kim, C. Kim, M. Y. Yi (2017). A framework for the targeted selection of herbs with similar efficacy by exploiting drug repositioning technique and curated biomedical knowledge. J Ethnopharmacol.; 208: 117–128.
Ahmed. O. M., H. Abdel-Hamid, M. Bastawy, and N. A. Hasona (2006). Antihyperglycemic effects of Plantago ispaghula seeds aqueous extracts in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic rats. Journal of Egypian German Society of Zoology: 51 (2):371-393.
Vllanueva1, M. and S. Verti (2002). El Aguacate: Oro Verde De México, Orgullo De Michoacán. Gobierno del Estado de Michoacán. 6 (2):54-58.
Hauwa, M. S. H. B. Gabi and S. A. Jere (2016). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic leaf extract of morinda lucida on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 10 (2): 4 8–51.
Liu, X., J. Sievert, and M. Arpaia (2002). Postulated physiological roles of the seven-carbon sugars, mannoheptulose, and perseitol in avocado. J. Amer Soc. Hort Sci, 127 (1): 108-114.
Mironova, M. A., R. L. Klein, G. T. Virella, M. F. Lopes-Virella (2000). Antimodified LDL antibodies, LDL - containing immune complexes and susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation in patients with type-2 diabetes. Diabetes, 49:1033 - 1049.
Mahadeva Rao, U.S. (2018). Phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant and anti-diabetic potentials of Persea americana mill. (lauraceae) fruit extract. Universal Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 3 (5): 38-45.
Adoum, O., O. Bello, and S. M. Ibrahim (2011). Phytochemicals and hypoglycaemic effect of methanol stem-bark extract of Ficus sycomorus Linn (Moraceae) on alloxan induced diabetic wistar albino rats. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11 (17): 4095-4097.
Atiku, M. K., M. M. Muhammad, and S. M. Ibrahim (2010). Synergistic effects of Anarcardium occidentale stem bark and Gymnema sylvestre stem extracts on serum glucose, lipids and liver enzymes in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. NJBMB, 25 (3): 8-11.
Gaurav, S., N. Nagpal, S., Rahar, P. Singh, N. M. A. Porwal, and K. R. Porwal, (2010). Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Cordia dichotoma on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic wister rats. IJPRD, 2 (7): 1–7.
Karthic, R., S. Nagaraj, P. Arulmurugan, S. Seshadri, R. Rengasamy and K. Kathiravan, (2012). Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2 (2): S930–S933.
Stanley, P. and M. P. Venugopal (2001). Antioxidant action of Tinospora condifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Phytother Res, 15: 213-218.
Enomfon, J. A., E. O. Jude and O. Emem (2012). Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens. The Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1691 (12): 60089.
Anderson, L., B. Dinesen, P. N. Jorgensen, F. Poulsen and M. E. Roder (1993). Enzyme immunoassay for intact human insulin in serum or plasma. Clin Chem, 39 (4): 578-582.
Brugi, W. (1998). One step sandwich enzyme immunoassay for insulin using monoclonal antibodies. Clin Biochem, 21: 311-4.
Friedewald, W. T., R. T. Hevy and D. Frederickson (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low protein cholesterol in plasma without use of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem, 18: 499-502.
Mentreddy, S. R., A. I. Mohamed and A. M. Rimando, (2005). Medicinal plants with hypoglycemic/anti-hyperglycemic properties: A Review. Proc Assoc Adv Ind Crop Conf, 20: 341–353.
Chausmer, A. B. (1998). Zinc, insulin and diabetes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 17 (2): 109-115.
Mashi, J. A., Atiku, M. K., Shehu, D., Idris, R. I., Sa’id, A. M., Dangambo, M. A., Babagana, K., Ya’u, M. and Babandi, A. (2019). Comparative study of different solvents extract of Persea americana leaf on alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats. Asian J. Biol. Sci., 12: 67-72.
G. P. Talwar, I. M. Srivastava and K. D. Moudgil, “Text Book of Biochemistry and Human Biology”, 2 nd Edition, Prentice-Hallof indiaprivate Ltd, 1989, Pp. 12-34.
Bnouham, M., A. Ziyyat, H. Mekhfi, A. Tahri, A. Legssyer (2006). Medicinal plants with potential antidiabetic activity - A review of ten years of herbal medicine research (1990-2000). Int J Diabetes & Metabolism, 14: 1-25.
Kumar, D., S. Kumar, S. Kohli, R. Arya and J. Gupta (2011). Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract of Albizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice. Asian Pac J Trop Med, 4 (11): 900-903.
Kumar, R., P. D. Kumar, S. K. Prasad, K. Sairam and S. Hemalatha (2011). Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic leaves extract of Alangium lamarckii Thwaites on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med, 4 (11): 904-909.
Patil, R. N., R. Y. Patil, B. Ahirwar and D. Ahirwar (2011). Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med; 4 (1): 20-23.
Lenzen, S. (2008). The mechanisms of alloxan and streptozotocin induced diabetes. Diabetologia; 51: 216-226. 374-352.
Mahadeva, U.S., H. Mainul and B. Amin (2011). Insulin stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract on streptozotocin induced hyperglycemic Rats. Journal of Medical and Biological Science: 4 (1): 1-10.
Younes, A. M., M. Ben Salem, H. El-Abed, and R. Jarraya (2018). Phytochemical Screening and Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and Antioxidant Properties of Anthyllis henoniana (Coss.) Flowers Extracts in an Alloxan-Induced Rats Model of Diabetes. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14.
Kolawale, O. T., S. O. Kolawale, A. A. Ayankunle and I. O. Olaniran, (2012). Methanol leaf extract of Persea americana protects rats against cholesterol-induced hyperlipidaemia. British Journal of Medicine and Medicinal Research: 2 (2): 235-241.
Rajkumar, L. and P. Govindarajulu (1991). Increased degradation of dermal collagen in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol, 29: 1081-1083.
Ramesh, B., S. B., Sainath, R. Karuna, S. S. Reddy and D. Saralakumari (2015). Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic and renal marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart in fructose fed insulin resistant rats. Bjbas, 11: 269–278.
Xu, Z., X. Wang, M. Zhou, L. Ma, Y. Deng and H. Zhang (2008). The antidiabtic activity of total lignan from Fructusarctii against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice and rats. Phytother Res; 22:97-101.
Pari, L. and S. Amarnath (2004). Antidiabetic activity of Boerhavia diffusa L: effect on hepatic key enzyme in experimental diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol; 91:109-113.
Krishnakumar, K., K. T. Augustti, P. L. Vijayammal (2000). Hypolipidaemic effect of Salacia oblonga Wall. root bark in streptozotocin diabetic rats. Med Sci; 28:65-67.
Aragao, D. M., Guarize, L., Lanini, J., Da costa, J. C., Garcia, R. M. and E. Scio (2010). Hypoglycemic effects of Cecropia pachystachya in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128 (5): 629-633.
Kim, K. and H. Y. Kim (2008). Korean red ginseng stimulates insulin release from isolated rat pancreatic islets. J Ethnopharmacol, 120 (2): 190–195.
Brai, B. I., A. A. Odotola and B. U. Agomo (2007). Hypoglycemia and Hypocholesterolemic Potential of Persea americana Leafs Extract. Journal of Medicinal Foods: 1 (2): 358-360.
Nwaoguikpe, O. T. and I. N. Braide (2011). The effect of aqueous seeds extract of Persea. americana (Avocado pear) on serum lipid and cholesterol levels in rabbits. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Reasearch: 1 (2): 023- 029.
El-Kabbaoui, M., A. Chda, O. Azdad, N. Mejrhit, L. Aarab, R. Bencheikh and A. Tazi (2016). Evaluation of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Cistus ladaniferus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 6 (12): 1044-1049.
Yupparach, P. and A. Konsue (2017). Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Ethanolic Extract from Mimosa pudica L. in Normal and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Pharmacog J, 9 (6): 834-7.
Jagdish. C. N. and L. S. Chauhan (2016). Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Leaf Extracts of Breynia vitis-idaea in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Pharmacognosy Journal, 8 (3): 396-404.
Egea, J., I. Fabregat, Y. M. Frapart, P. Ghezzi, A. Görlach, T. Kietzmann and A. Daiber (2017). Redox Biology European contribution to the study of ROS : A summary of the findings and prospects for the future from the cost action BM1203 (EU-ROS), 13: 94 162.
Tandon S. (2005). Phytochemicals and cardiovascular health. High Current R and D, 28:18 - 22.