Antibacterial Screening of Extracts of Stem Bark of Prunus africana and Its Heavy Metal Determination
International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology
Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages: 52-59
Received: Apr. 16, 2018; Accepted: May 16, 2018; Published: Feb. 26, 2019
Views 96      Downloads 21
Desta Dirbeba, College of Natural and Computational Science, Dire Dawa University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
Ahmed Hussen, College of Natural Science, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
In Ethiopia, the traditional healers use fusions of leaves and decoctions of stem barks of the Prunus africana to treat diarrhea, wound dressing and other bacterial diseases. This provided us an impetus to investigate the antibacterial activities of crude extracts of the plant. In line with, the bioactive molecules from the plant were extracted using Soxhlet and maceration extraction techniques with solvents of different polarities. The Soxhlet technique showed relatively better extraction efficiency in extracting the secondary metabolites of the plant than maceration technique. Among the different solvents examined for their better extraction yield potential, methanol was found to be the best extractant with extraction yield of 22.5%. The antimicrobial activities of crude extracts of petroleum ether, diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol were investigated using agar well disc diffusion and agar dilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The methanolic extract showed antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aereus and Bacillus subtilis with 18.00±1.53 mm and 19.33±2.08 mm diameter of zones of inhibition, respectively. Similarly, diethyl ether extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with 17.00±1.15 mm of zones of inhibition. The levels of seven heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd) were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS) and microwave digester at optimized conditions. Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd were below the method detection limit while Zn, Mn and Cu metal ions were detected and found to be in the Permissible Levels (World Health Organization standards). The concentration of Mn was the highest as compared to that of metals in both stem and leaves the plant.
Prunus africana, Agar Well Diffusion Assay, Gar Dilution Assay, Heavy Metals, FAAS
To cite this article
Desta Dirbeba, Ahmed Hussen, Antibacterial Screening of Extracts of Stem Bark of Prunus africana and Its Heavy Metal Determination, International Journal of Biochemistry, Biophysics & Molecular Biology. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2018, pp. 52-59. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbbmb.20180304.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Hostettmann K, Marston A, Ndjoko K, Wolfender JL (2000). The potential of African plants as a source of drugs. Current Organic Chemistry. 4: 973-1010.
Stewart KM (2003). The African cherry (Prunus africana): Can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree? Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 89: 3-13.
Cunningham AB, Mbenkum FT (1993). Sustainability of Harvesting Prunus africana Bark in Cameroon: A medicinal plant in international trade. People and plants working paper 2. 1993; Paris, UNESCO.
Jimu L (2011). Threats and conservation strategies for the African cherry (Prunus africana) in its natural range. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment. 3: 118-130.
Dalle G (2004). Distribution and conservation status of Prunus africana in Ethiopia: opportunities and constraints. PhD thesis, Georg-August University, Germany.
Mesfin F, Demissew S, Teklehaymanot T (2009). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and ethomedicine. 5: 1-18.
Bii C, Korir R, Rugutt J, Mutai C (2010). The potential use of Prunus africana for the control, treatment and management of common fungal and bacterial infections. Journal of medicinal plants research. 4: 995-998.
World Health organization (WHO) (2007). Guidelines for assessing quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residues. Printed in Spain, ISBN 978 92 4 1594448.
World Health Organization (WHO, 1998). Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials Geneva;
World Health Organization Health (WHO) (2007). Risks of heavy metals from long range trans-boundary air pollution. Printed in Germany. ISBN 97892 89071796.
Munoz C, Africa M, Cerrillo N, Maria R, Kasimis MR, Bermejo NH, Esteban J, Cedres P, Fernandez EM, Clemente EH, Porras RF. (2006). Evaluation harvest of the of Prunus Africana bark on Bioko (Equatorial Guinea): guidelines for a management plan, University of Cordoba, Spain. ISBN 84-7801-848-4, DLCO-1464.
Delahaye C, Rainford L, Nicholson AS, MitchellS, Lindo J, Ahmad M (2009). Antibacterial and antifungal analysis of crude extracts from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis. Journal Medical and Biological Sciences. 3: 1-7.
Esimone CO., Attama AA., Mundi KS, Ibekwe NN, Chah KF. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava Linn. Stem extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aereus. African Journal of Biotechnology. 11:15556-15559.
Phongpaichit S., Pujenjob N., Rukachaisirikul V., Ongsakul M (2005). Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. Journal of Science and Technology. 20, 517-523.
Dewanjee S, Kundu M, Maiti A, Majumdar R, Majumdar A, Manda SC (2007). In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of crude extract from plants Diospyros peregrina, Coccinia grandisand Swietenia macrophylla. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 6: 773-778.
Peni IJ, Elinge CM, Yusuf H, Itodo AU, Agaie BM, Mbongo AN, Chogo E (2010). Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Parinari curatellifolia stem extract. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 4: 2099-2102.
Naing AA (2011). Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activities of Carissa carandas L. Universities Research Journal. 4:293-303.
Prasannabalaji N, Muralitharan G, Sivanandan RN, Kumaran S, Pugazhvendan SR. (2012). Antibacterial activities of some Indian traditional plant extracts. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 1012: 291-295.
Adongo SO, Murungi J, WanjauR (2012). Determination of levels of selected essential elements in the medicinal plants used by Chuka community, Meru-Kenya using AAS. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences. 2: 69-79.
Gajalakshmi S, Iswarya V, Ashwini R, Divya G, Mythili S, Sathiavelu A (2012). Evaluation of heavy metals in medicinal plants growing in Vellore District. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 2: 1457-1461. ISSN: 2248 -9215.
Idris S, Iyaka YA, Ndamitso MM, Paiko YB (2011). Nutritional composition of the leaves and stems of Ocimum gratissimum. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2: 801-805.
Akan JC, Inuwa LB, Chellube ZM, Lawan B. (2013). Heavy metals in leaf stem bark of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) and roadside dust in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Environment and Pollution. 2: 88-94.
Khan SA, Khan L, Hussain I, Shah H, Akhtar N (2008). Comparative assessment of heavy metals in Euphorbia helioscopia L. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science and Research. 14:91-100.
Hussain I and Khan L (2010). Comparative study on heavy metal contents in Taraxacum officinal. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2: 15-18.
World Health organization (WHO) (2007). Monographs on selected medicinal plant. Printed in Spain, ISBN 9789241547024.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-983-5186