Material Selection for High Pressure (HP) Turbine Blade of Conventional Turbojet Engines
American Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2016, Pages: 1-9
Received: Jun. 5, 2016; Accepted: Jun. 13, 2016; Published: Jun. 23, 2016
Views 15794      Downloads 719
Ikpe Aniekan Essienubong, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coventry University, West Midlands, UK
Owunna Ikechukwu, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coventry University, West Midlands, UK
Patrick. O. Ebunilo, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
Ememobong Ikpe, Department of Instrumentation and Control, Exxon Mobil Producing Nigeria, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Turbojet engine can be divided into three major sections including the compressor, combustion chamber and the gas turbine section. The relatively high temperature gas that passes through the high pressure turbine stages of a turbojet engine from the combustion chamber has a direct effect on the performance and efficiency of the gas turbine, which may hamper its longevity in the long run, particularly the turbine blades. The turbine blades extract energy from the high temperature gas and transfer the kinetic energy of the flowing gas to the compressor stages where it provides forward thrust and rotates the turbine shaft which drives the high pressure and low Pressure compressor fan blades. However, the ability of materials to withstand this high temperature is based on properties of such materials which can be attributed to advances in material selection, improvement techniques in terms of surface protection and cooling as well as manufacturing processes which this paper is based on. Material indices were derived for High Pressure (HP) turbine blades to determine materials that can resist yielding and creep condition when exposed to high temperature above 700°C in a turbojet engine gas turbine. Based on the material indices derived, CES software 2014 was used to generate graphs showing materials with adequate fracture toughness, fatigue strength, stiffness and yield strength property that can withstand the in-service condition of HP turbine blade. Considering all these properties in terms of relatively high temperature, Nickel based super alloys dominated the graphs but in terms of density, titanium alloys dominated as CES software gave the minimum density of nickel alloy (8150 kg/m3) as twice that of titanium alloy (4410 kg/m3). Although both alloys are very expensive, nickel based alloy particularly Nickel-Cr-Co-Mo Super alloy also known as Rene 41 was chosen because of its excellent corrosion property and high strength at elevated temperature (About 1000°C) which makes it suitable for conventional HP turbine blade application.
Temperature, Failure, HP Turbine Blades, Cyclic Stresses, High Strength, Low Density, Turbojet Engine
To cite this article
Ikpe Aniekan Essienubong, Owunna Ikechukwu, Patrick. O. Ebunilo, Ememobong Ikpe, Material Selection for High Pressure (HP) Turbine Blade of Conventional Turbojet Engines, American Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-9. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmie.20160101.11
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ashby M. F. (1992) Materials Selection in Mechanical Design. Oxford: Pergamon Press
Avnir, D. (2014) Molecular Doped Metals. Account of Chemical Research 47: 579-94. PMID 24283194
Bhagi, L. K., Rastogi, V., Gupta, P. (2013) Fractographic Investigations of the Failure of L-1 Low Pressure Steam Turbine Blade. Case Study in Engineering Failure Analysis, 1 (2) 72-87
Bhagi, L. K., Rastogi, V., Gupta, P. (2012) A brief Review on Modelling Approaches of Friction Dampers used in Turbo Machinery. Advances in Intelligence and Soft Computing 131: 317-329
Boyce, M. (2006) Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Campbell, F. (2006) Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural Material. London: Elsevier Ltd
Dahl, J. (2007) Diagram of a Typical Gas Turbine Jet Engine. Wikimedia Commons. [online] available from [26 May 2016]
Dexclaux, J. and Serre, J. (2003) M 88-2-E 4: Advanced New Generation Engine for Rafale Multirole Fighter /ICAS International Air and Space Symposium and Exposition: The Next 100 Years. 4-14 July 2003, Dayton, Ohio. AIAA 2003-2722
Eckardt, D. and Rufli, P. (2002) Advanced Gas Turbine Technology. ABB/BBC Historical Firsts. ASME J. Eng Gas Turbine Power pp 124, 542-549
Flack, R. (2005) Fundamental of Jet Propulsion with Applications. Chapter 8: Axial Flow Turbines. Cambridge Aerospace Series. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978-0-521-81983-1
Golley, J. (1996) Jet: Frank Whittle and the invention of the Jet Engine. ISBN: 978-1-907472-00-8
Kamps, T. (2005) Model Jet Engines. Traplet Publications. ISBN: 1-900371-91-X
Koff, B. L. (2003) Gas Turbine Technology Overview-A Design’s Perspective. AIAA/ICAS International Air and Space Symposium and Exposition: The Next 100 Years. 4-14 July 2003, Dayton, Ohio. AIAA 2003-2722
Mackay, R. A., Gabb, T. P., Smialek, J. L. and Nathal, M. V. (2010) A New Approach of Designing Super Alloys for Low Density. Springer, Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 62 (1) 48-54
Materials World Magazine (2013) Materials through the Ages: Materials for Aeroplane Engines. The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, London, United Kingdom. [online] available from [27 May 2016]
Muhlbauer, A. (2008) History of Induction Heating and Melting. ISBN: 978-3-8027-2946-1
Nathan, S. (2015) Jewel in the Crown: Rolls-Royce’s Single-Crystal Turbine Blade Casting Foundry. [online] available [2 August 2015]
Nayan, N., Govind, Saikrishna, C. N., Ramaiah, K., Venkata, Bhaumik, S. K., Nair. K. S. and M. C. (2007) Vacuum Induction Melting of Ni Ti Shape Memory Alloys in Graphite Crucible. Material Science and Engineering: A 465: 44
Princeton University (2000) Oxidation of a polycrystalline titanium surface by oxygen and water [online] available from [10 March 2014]
Rolls Royce (2007) Selection of Materials for Aerospace Systems. [online] available from [29 January 2014]
Rolls Royce (2014) Compressors [online] available from [13 March 2014]
Stack Exchange Inc (2016) Why are Turbine Blades not made out of Titanium alloys, only Compressor Blades. [online] available from [27 May 2016]
Suranaree University of Technology (2007) Titanium and its alloy [online] available from [2 April 2014]
Tomeasy (2009) Schematic of a High Pressure gas Turbine Blades of Aircraft Engines. [online] available from [27 May 2016]
Walter, J. L., Jackson M. R., and Sims C. T (1988) Alloying. Published: Metal Park, Ohio: ASM International.
Yahya, S. M. (2011) Turbines Compressors and Fans. New Delhe: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Pp 430-433, ISBN: 9780070707023
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186