Khat Chewing and Its Associated Factor among College Students in Bahir Dar Town, Ethiopia
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 1, Issue 5, November 2013, Pages: 209-214
Received: Sep. 6, 2013; Published: Oct. 30, 2013
Views 5053      Downloads 726
Yeshalem Mulugeta, Department of Public Health, Medical and Health Science College, Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box.79, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Background: - Khat is a large green shrub that grows at high altitude in the region extending from eastern to southern Africa, as well as on the Arabian Peninsula. Khat is widely consumed among the youth of Ethiopia; especially among high school, College and University students. Khat chewing is the risk of frequently absenteeism from class and poor academic performance of the students. Moreover, it has serious health, social and economic consequence. However, information on prevalence and its associated factor is scarce in the study area. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the prevalence of khat chewing and its associated factor among College students in Bahir Dar town, Ethiopia. Methods: - School based cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2012 among 754 College students in Bahir Dar town, Ethiopia. Data were collected using pre-tested structured facilitator guided self administered questionnaire. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select students for the survey. The collected data were cleaned, coded and entered on to EPi-Info version 3.5.2 Statistical package soft ware. Data were exported to SPSS version 16 program for analysis. The proportion of youth reported khat chewing was computed. Logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with khat chewing. Result- the overall prevalence of khat chewing in College students was 146 (19.6%). The factors associated with khat chewing were being male [Adjusted OR =5.88, 95% CI = (3.18, 10.87)], having pocket money [Adjusted OR =3.42, 95% CI = (2.04, 5.76)], urban residence [Adjusted OR =4.09, 95% CI =(2.38, 7.01)], peer pressure [Adjusted OR =13.16, 95% CI =(6.89, 25.17)], and parental model [Adjusted OR =4.28, 95% CI =(1.96, 9.35)]. Conclusion -The prevalence of khat chewing was high among College students in the study area. Factors that significantly affect the habit of khat chewing were identified. Colleges and health Bureau should design and implement audience specific behavioral change communication about consequence of khat chewing to prevent and avert students khat chewing practice.
Khat, Youth, College Students, Ethiopia
To cite this article
Yeshalem Mulugeta, Khat Chewing and Its Associated Factor among College Students in Bahir Dar Town, Ethiopia, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 1, No. 5, 2013, pp. 209-214. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20130105.14
John F, Louise LPL. Khat: a literature review: center for culture,ethenicity and health 2009.
Ezekiel G. Khat in the Horn of Africa: Historical perspectives and current trends. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010;132(3):607-114.
Nasir TW. Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of Khat (Catha Edulis Forsk): A Review. Addict & Health. 2011;3(3-4):137-49.
Magdum SS. An Overview of Khat. Addictive disorders and their treatment. 2011;10(2):72-83.
Hussain.M Aa. Health and Soci-economic Hazard associated with Khat consumption J from community med. 2013;15(1):3-11.
David MA, Neil CMC. Khat: Social harms and legislation: A literature review. home office 2011.
Wakgari D, Aklilu A. Substance use and its predictors among undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(660):doi:10.1186/471-2458-11-660.
Binyam N. Substance Use Among High School Students in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia. Harar Bulletin of Health Sciences. 2012(2):42-9.
Tekalign D, Andualem M, Markos T. Khat chewing and mental distress:A Community based study,in Jimma city, Southwestern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2011; 21(1 ):39-42.
Hunter A, Baker E, Gladbaum H, Hirani K, Mashari R, McLennan M. The health and social impacts of khat use in Brent:A literature review. Brent Councile: Home Office 2012.
Ishraq D, Jiří Š. Khat Habit and Its Health Effect. A Natural Amphetamine. Biomed Papers. 2004;148(1):11-5.
Saba K, Ray C. Factors associated with dental and medical care attendance in UK resident Yemeni khat chewers:a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(486):
Workineh G, Teferi G, Fikru T. Regular Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is associated with elevated diastolic blood pressure among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia: A comparative study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10: 390. doi:10.1186/471-2458-10-390.
Dawit A, Asfaw D, Amare D, Ambaye D, Almaz A, Kelbessa U, et al. Khat chewing habit as a possible risk behaviour for HIV infection: A case-control study. EthiopJHealth Dev. 2005;3.
Ayana A, Mekonen Z. Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing, sociodemographic description and its effect on academic performance, Jimma University students 2002. Ethiop Med J 2004;42(2):125-36.
Rashad Mohammed A, MohamedSalih M, AbdelrahimMutwakel G. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors. BioMed Research International. 2013:7. dol.10.1155/2013/487232
Ali WM, Zubaid M, Al-Motarreb A, Singh R, Al-Shereiqi SZ, Shehab A, et al. Association of Khat Chewing With Increased Risk of Stroke and Death in Patients Presenting With Acute Coronary Syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85(11):974-80.
Measho G, Amsalu F, Tesfahun M. Psychoactive substances use and associated factors among Axum university students, Axum Town, North Ethiopia. BMC PublicHealth.2013;13(639):
Gelaw Y, Haile-Amlak A. Khat chewing and its socio-demographic correlates among the staff of Jimma University. EthiopJHealth Dev. 2004;18(3):179-84.
Patrick M, Andrew P, Kathryn H. The cost of drug use in adolescence: Young people,money and substance abuse. Drugs: education, prevention and policy. 2007;14(1):19-28.
Glenice C, Hagen R. Adverse effects of khat: a review. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 2003;9:456–63.
AgeelyHussein M. Prevalence of Khat chewing in college and secondary (high) school students of Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Harm Reduction Journal. 2009;6(11):doi:10.1186/477-7517-6-11.
Ayalu AR, Asmamaw M, Sibhatu B, Berhanu YW. Prevalence and Determinants of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing among High School Students in Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(3):e33946. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033946.
Abiye G, Abebe GM, Meseret Y. Khat use and risky sexual behavior among youth in Asendabo town, South Western Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2007;17(1):5.
Mekonnen G. The Prevalence of Khat –Induced Psychotic Reactions among College Students: A Case in Jimma University College of Agriculture. Ethiop J Educ & Sc. 2006;2(1).
Sikiru L. Khat (Catha edulis): the herb with officio-legal, socio-cultural and economic uncertainty. South AfricanJScie. 2010;106(3-4).
Kalayu M, Andualem M, Yeshigeta G. Effect of substance use on academic achievement of health officer and medical students of Jimma University, SouthWest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2009;19(3):157-62.
Heather D, Merali B, Nicholas L. The health impacts of khat: a qualitative study among Somali-Australians. Med J Aust 2011;195(11):666-9.
Marelign TM, Gistane AA. Factors associated with KHAT use and age at first initiation among youths in southern, Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health. 2013; 1(3):113-8.
Alsanosy, R. M., Mahfouz, M. S., & Gaffar, A. M. (2013). Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors. BioMed Research International, 2013, 7. doi: 10.1155/2013/487232.
Salih MM, Mohammed AR, Mutwakel GA. The role of family background on adolescent khat chewing behavior in Jazan Region. Annals of General Psychiatry. 2013;12(16):doi:10.1186/744-859X-12-16.
Bruce S-M, Tilda F. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Substance Use. J Prim Prev. 2010;31(4):doi:10.1007/s10935-010-0220-x.
Heba A, Bharathi V, Valentin R, Paccaud PBF. Association between substance use and psychosocial characteristics among adolescents of the Seychelles. BMC Pediatrics.2011;11(85):
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186