Sanitation and Hygiene Practices in Relation to Childhood Diarrhoea Prevalence: The Case of Households with Children under-Five Years in Ghana
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 119-125
Received: Feb. 3, 2014;
Published: Mar. 20, 2014
Views 2890 Downloads 246
Leslie Danquah, Department of Geography & Rural Development, CASS, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Esi Awuah, Universtiy of Energy and Natural Resources (UENR), Sunyani, Ghana
Charlotte Monica Mensah, Department of Geography & Rural Development, CASS, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Seth Agyemang, Department of Geography & Rural Development, CASS, KNUST, Kumasi, Ghana
Research evidence indicates that the household environment has significant implications for the health of the members of the household. The objective of this study was to assess selected sanitation and hygiene practices in relation to the prevalence of childhood diarrhoea in households with children under-five years from the Ghanaian setting. A systematic random sampling approach was used to select 378 households from two communities each in the urban and peri-urban areas of the Atwima Nwabiagya District of Ghana respectively. Structured questionnaires and observation schedules were used to collect quantitative data from mothers and analyzed using chi-square and odds ratios (OR). The study showed that private latrine possession was low (10%) and sanitation facilities used by households were largely unimproved (90%). Children who lived in households which had water closets (WCs) in their dwellings recorded the lowest diarrhoea prevalence rate (11.1%) whereas the highest rate was recorded in households where the WCs were located outside the dwelling. Childhood diarrhoea was most prevalent (36%) for children whose mothers reported that they did not wash their hands with water and soap after defecation. It is proposed that adequate sanitation and hygiene education be given to mothers of children under-five years in the district and further research carried into socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of childhood diarrhoea.
Charlotte Monica Mensah,
Sanitation and Hygiene Practices in Relation to Childhood Diarrhoea Prevalence: The Case of Households with Children under-Five Years in Ghana, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2014, pp. 119-125.
J. Songsore, J. S. Nabila, Y. Yangyuoru, E. Amuah, E. K Bosque-Hamilton, K. K. Etsibah, J. Gustafsson, & G. Jacks, 2005. State of environmental health: Report of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area 2001. Ghana Universities Press, Accra.
J. E. Hardoy, D. Mitlin, and D. Satterthwaite. 2001. Environmental problems in an urbanizing world. Earthscan, London.
WHO, 2002. World Health Report 2002: Reducing risks, promoting health life. World Health Organization, Geneva.
E. Mintz, J. Bartram, P. Lochery, and M. Wegelin, 2001. Not just a drop in the bucket: expanding access to point-of- use water treatment systems. American Journal of Public Health, 91: 1565-1570.
R.. L. Peletz,. 2006. Cross-Sectional epidemiological study on water and sanitation practices in the Northern Region of Ghana. Unpublished MSc. Thesis. Massachussets Institute of Technology.
WHO/UNICEF 2010. Progress on sanitation and drinking-water, 2010 update. World Health Organization, Geneva.
WHO/UNICEF 2013. Progress on sanitation and drinking-water, 2013 update. World Health Organization, Geneva.
M. Saunders, P. Lewis, and A. Thornhill, 2007. Research methods for business students. (4th ed.). Essex: Pearson education limited.
D. L. Daniels, S. N. Cousens, L. N. Makoae and R.G. Feachem, 1990. A case-control study of the impact of improved sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity in Lesotho. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 68: 455–463.
L. O. Danquah, 2010. Measuring hand washing behaviour: Methodological and validity issues. South Asia hygiene practitioners’ workshop. Dhaka, Bangladesh.
UNICEF/WHO 2009. Why are children still dying and what can be done? World Health Organization, Geneva.
V. Curtis, S. Cairncross, and R. Yonli, 2000. Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea – pinpointing the problem. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 5(1): 22 – 32.
WHO 2003. Domestic water quantity, service level and health. World Health Organization, Geneva.
B. Scott, V. Curtis, T. Rabie, and N. Garbrah-Aidoo, (2007). Health in our hands, but not in our heads: Understanding hygiene motivation in Ghana. Health Policy and planning, 22; 225 – 233.doi:10.1093/heapol/czm016.
J. C. Baltazar, and F. S. Solon, 1989. Disposal of faeces of children under two years old and diarrhoea incidence: A case-control study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 18: 16 – 19.
M. N. Manun’ebo, et al. 1994. Influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables on childhood diarrhoea in a rural area of Zaire. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 97: 31 – 38.
E. E. Ekanem, C. O. Akitoye, and O. T. Adedeye, 1991. Food hygiene behaviour and childhood diarrhoea in Lagos, Nigeria: a case control study. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, 9(3): 219 – 226.
A. H. El-Gilany, and S. Hammad, 2005. Epidemiology of diarrhoeal diseases among children under age 5 years in Dakahlia, Egypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 2(4): 762 – 775.
N. B. Mock, T. A. Sellers, A. A. Abdoh,. & R. R. Franklin, 1993. Socioeconomic, environmental, demographic and behavioural factors associated with the occurrence of diarrhoea in young children. Social Science and Medicine, 36(6): 807 – 816.
J. VanDerslice, B. Popkin, and J. Briscoe, 1994. Drinking-water quality, sanitation, and breastfeeding: their interactive effects on infant health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 72(4): 589 – 601.
T. Gataneh, A. Assefa, and Z. Taddesse, 1997. Diarrhoea morbidity in urban area of south – west Ethiopia. East Africa Medical Journal, 74(8): 491 – 494.
G. P. M. Root, 2001. Sanitation, community environments and childhood diarrhoea in rural Zimbabwe. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition, 19(2): 73 – 82.
G. Regassa, W. Birke, B. Deboch, and T. Belachew, 2008. Environmental determinants of diarrhoea among under-five children. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science, 18(2): 39 – 45.
GSS 2007. 2000 Population and housing census data CD Rom. Ghana Statistical Service, Kumasi.