Prevalence of Pneumonia among under- five Children in Este Town and the Surrounding Rural Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia; A Community Based Cross Sectional Study
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 150-155
Received: Feb. 18, 2014;
Accepted: Apr. 11, 2014;
Published: Apr. 20, 2014
Views 5034 Downloads 920
Gedefaw Abeje Fekadu, College of Medicine and health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
Mamo Wubshet Terefe, College of Medicine and health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Getahun Asres Alemie, College of Medicine and health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
Introduction: Pneumonia causes about two million under five deaths each year, accounting for nearly one in five child deaths globally. Identifying its prevalence in under-five children and the associated factors is crucial to achieve MDG4 in developing countries. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with pneumonia among under-five children in Este town and surrounding rural kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Community based cross sectional study design was used. A total of 286 households with under-five children were selected by multistage sampling technique, 222 from rural and 64 from the urban kebeles (‘Kebele’ is the smallest administrative unit) proportional to the number of children in the respective kebeles. Two rural and one urban kebeles were selected by simple random sampling. Then households were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Trained nurses collected the data through face to face interview. Two health officers supervised the data collection process. Data were analyzed by stepwise binary logistic regression model. Result: The overall two weeks prevalence of pneumonia among under-five children was 16.1%. Stunting, using charcoal for cooking, carrying the child on back during cooking, keeping cattle inside the main house and living in crowded house were the most important variables found associated with pneumonia among under-five children in this study. Conclusion and recommendation: The prevalence of pneumonia among under-five children in the study area was high. Nutrition interventions and introducing improved stoves to households may reduce pneumonia among children. Health education should be given for senior household members on the possible risk factors for pneumonia
Gedefaw Abeje Fekadu,
Mamo Wubshet Terefe,
Getahun Asres Alemie,
Prevalence of Pneumonia among under- five Children in Este Town and the Surrounding Rural Kebeles, Northwest Ethiopia; A Community Based Cross Sectional Study, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 150-155.
WHO, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, 1990-2005. [Date accessed July 10, 2009]. Available from: URL: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/mi/goals_2005/goal_3.pdf
Tadesse H, Amare A, Woldie M. Predictors of defaulting from completion of child immunization in south Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. [online] May, 2009 [accessed on June 15, 2009] 9:150. Available from: URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid19463164
Girma B. Epidemiological assessment of determinants and causes of under-five child mortality in Jimma town: Is HIV/AIDS influencing the pattern of child mortality. Thesis. AAU electronic library [unpublished].
UNICEF. The state of the world’s children 2009. Maternal and newborn health. [Date accessed May 26 2009] Available from: URL: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/SOWC2009MainReport03112009.pdf
Central statistics authority. Ethiopian demographic and health survey, 2005. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
WHO, Global Burdon of disease. Causes of death in neonates and children under five in the African region. First published on 2004, updated 2008. [Date accessed May 30, 2009] available from :URL: http://www.who.int/child_adolescent_health/media/causes_death_u5_neonates_afropdf
Federal Ministry of Health, Family health department. National strategy for child survival in Ethiopia. July 2005. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Child info, Statistics By area. Monitoring the situation of children and women. Pneumonia is the leading killer of children. [Date accessed June 17, 2009] Available at http://www.childinfo.org/pneumonia.html
Huicho L, Trelles M, and Fernando Gonzales F. National and sub-national under-five mortality profiles in Peru: a basis for informed policy decisions. BMC Public Health [Serial online] July 4, 2006 [Date accessed June 16 2009]; 6(173). Available from: URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?iid=126476
Deribew A, Tessema F, Girma B. Determinants of under-five mortality in Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2007;21(2):117-124
Emmelin A and Wall S. Indoor Air Pollution: A poverty-related cause of mortality among children of the world. CHEST [Serial online] November, 2007 [Date accessed on 11-6-2009]; 132(5):1615-1623 Available from: URL: http://www.chestjournal.org/content/132/5/1615.full?sid=7ea37112-999 d82844b83548
Teka T. Causes of child mortality in Gondar hospital. Ethiopian Journal of health. Development. 1996, 10(3): 145 – 1481
Gupta R, Kumar A, Singh P. Factor analysis of acute respiratory infections among Under Fives in Delhi Slums. Brief report. Indian Pediatrics [Serial online] 1999 [Date accessed June16 2009]; 36(1):1144-1149. Available from: URL: http://indianpediatrics.net/99nov01.htm
Azad k. Risk factors for acute respiratory infections (ARI) among children under five years in Bangladesh. Journal of Scientific Research. [Serial online] 2009 November 20 [Date accessed June 12, 2006]; 1(1), 72-81. Available from: URL: http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/JSR
Ali M, Asefaw T, Beyene H, Byass P and Hisabu MS, Pederson F. A community-based study of childhood morbidity in Tigray. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2001, 15(3):165-172.
Tessema T, Hailu S, Anbebir S and Mitikie G. Household illness prevalence and its determinants in the under five children, North Western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2000, 15 (3):173-178
Dessalegn B. Household fuel use and acute respiratory infection among younger children: An Exposure Assessment in Shebedino Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. Thesis. AAU electronic library [unpublished].
Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Piloglav Z, Mullholand K, Campbell. Epidemiology and Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization [Serial online] May 2008 [Date accessed June 6, 2009]; 86 (5): 408-416. Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes86/5/07-048769/en/index.html
BIO-MEDICINE. Study of energy and health in Africa focuses spotlight on charcoal and forest management. 31-March-2005 [Date accessed on 10-6-2009]. Available from: URL: http://news.bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-2/
Mitra N. A longitudinal study on ARI among rural under fives. Indian journal of community medicine [Serial online] 2001January - March [Date accessed June 25, 2009]; 26(1). Available from: URL: http://www.indmedica.com/journals.php?journalid=7&issueid=47&articleid=573article
Kebede D. Risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in under-five children in Addis Ababa. Article Review. Ethiopian journal of health development.1997, volume 11 special issue.
Persson L. The unfinished child survival revolution: the role of nutrition. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. [Serial online] 2005 [Date accessed June 23, 2009]; 49 (4): 146 - 150. Available from: URL: http://www.foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/viewFile/1541/
Cardoso M, Cousens S, Siqueira L, Alves F and Angelo L. Crowding: risk factor or protective factor for lower respiratory disease in young children? BMC Public Health [Serial online] June 3, 2004 [Date accessed May 25, 2009]; 4(19). Available from: URL: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/tocrender.fcgi?iid=9515