Body Composition of Adults Living with HIV in Two Cities in Ghana
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 361-366
Received: Jun. 20, 2014; Accepted: Jul. 7, 2014; Published: Jul. 30, 2014
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Authors
Theodosia Adom, Nutrition Research Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Ghana
Rose Boatin, Nutrition Research Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Ghana
David Bansa, Nutrition Research Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Ghana
Godfred Egbi, Nutrition Department, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
Isaac Baidoo, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Ghana
Dominic Datohe, Nutrition Research Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Ghana
Christian Brown-Appiah, Nutrition Research Centre, Radiological and Medical Sciences Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon, Ghana
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Abstract
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects nutrition through increases in resting energy expenditure, reduction in food intake, nutrient malabsorption and loss, and complex metabolic alterations that culminates in weight loss and wasting common in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This study sought to assess body composition of adults living with HIV. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 63 adults living with HIV in two cities in Ghana. Socio-demographic information was obtained with a questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the deuterium dilution method and with anthropometry. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive statistics and frequencies and percentages were calculated. The independent sample t-test was used for comparisons between groups. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. Results: Median (interquartile range) body mass index was within normal for both males (20.6, [18.9, 21.6 kg/m2]) and females (21.6; [19.8, 24.9 kg/m2]). Underweight (7.9%) and overweight (19.0%) were however prevalent. Males have significantly higher median fat free mass than females (52.7 kg versus 40.1 kg; p<0.0001) kg whereas females have a significantly higher fat mass (27.5% versus 12.2%; p<0.0001), and high abdominal obesity (49.0%). Almost 21% and 8% of participants have depleted fat free mass and fat mass respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrates some level of malnutrition among the study participants. This underscores the importance of monitoring body composition in people living with HIV. Measurements of waist and hip circumferences should form part of the assessment tools. This will help in identifying those on antiretroviral treatment that are at risk of developing abdominal obesity and thereby supporting the need for modifying treatment regimens when necessary. In addition, regular screening for hypertension, diabetes and other indicators of metabolic abnormalities is recommended.
Keywords
Body Composition, HIV Infection, Deuterium Dilution, Anthropometry, Ghana
To cite this article
Theodosia Adom, Rose Boatin, David Bansa, Godfred Egbi, Isaac Baidoo, Dominic Datohe, Christian Brown-Appiah, Body Composition of Adults Living with HIV in Two Cities in Ghana, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 361-366. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20140204.29
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