Determinants of Use of Modern Family Planning Methods: A Case of Baringo North District, Kenya
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 424-430
Received: Jul. 20, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 15, 2014;
Published: Aug. 30, 2014
Views 3941 Downloads 1289
Paul Kisia Malalu, School of Public Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Koskei Alfred, School of Public Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Robert Too, School of Public Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Amon Chirchir, School of Medicine, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Background: Globally, there is an increasing unmet need for safe and effective family planning services. Most women in Africa, just like in many parts around the world, desire to control both the number and timing of births but lack an effective contraceptive method. The uptake of family planning (FP) services is low in Baringo North District. The overall objective of the study was to describe factors influencing use of modern FP methods. Specific objectives were (i) To investigate the role of knowledge, attitude and practice on the utilization of modern FP methods; (ii) To assess the influence of socio-cultural factors on uptake; and (iii) To associate and correlate the various factors with use of these methods. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The district was stratified according to the four administrative divisions. Total sample size was proportionately allocated to each of the four strata then to the two health facilities that were purposively selected per strata. Women in the reproductive age group that met inclusion criteria attending outpatient service at the selected health facilities were consecutively recruited into the study. Data was collected through interviewer administered questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were generated and results considered significant at 95% confidence level. Results: Of all the 344 respondents, 80.8 percent were aware of Modern FP methods. Pills and injection were most commonly known and used methods, mentioned by 66.2 percent and 64.4 percent of study subjects respectively. Sixty two percent of the respondents approved use of modern contraception while the current use rate was 32.3 percent. The significant predictors of use these methods were the respondents' age, marital status, knowledge on the methods and their side effects, and method approval by self and partner (p< 0.05). Conclusion: The low uptake of modern FP methods by women reveals their lack of knowledge on the various methods available, fear of harmful effects, and method approval by self and partner. There is need for reproductive health programs to intensify efforts in improving women's knowledge on modern contraceptive options including their side effects; and encourage constructive partner involvement.
Paul Kisia Malalu,
Determinants of Use of Modern Family Planning Methods: A Case of Baringo North District, Kenya, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 424-430.
Successful Family Planning Efforts Essential to Alleviating Global Poverty, Elevating Women, Opinion Piece. New York Times 2009 April 06. Retrieved on 06/06/2010; from: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145330.php
Cleland J, Bernstein S, Ezeh A, Faundes A, Glasier A, Innis J. Family planning: the unfinished agenda. Lancet. 2006 Nov 18; 368(9549):1810-27.
UNFPA. Global Need for Family planning (no date). Retrieved on 06/06/2010; from: http://www.unfpa.org/rh/planning/mediakit/docs/new_docs/sheet1-english.pdf
Hogan MC, Foreman KJ, Naghavi M, Ahn SY, Wang M, Makela SM, Lopez AD, Lozno R, Murray CJL. Maternal mortality for 181 countries, 1980–2008: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5. Lancet 2010, 375(9726):1609–11623.
UNFPA. Maternal Health in Africa. 2013
UNFPA: Contraceptives save lives. 2012
Darroch JE, Singh S, Nadeau J: In Brief (No.5) New York. In Contraception: an investment in lives, health and development. New York: Guttmacher Institute and UNFPA; 2008.
Cleland JG, Ndugwa RP, Zulu EM. Family planning in sub-Saharan Africa: progress or stagnation? Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2011; 89:137-143.
UNFPA: Ensuring that Every Pregnancy is Wanted (no date). Retrieved on 06/06/2010; from: http://www.unfpa.org/rh/planning.htm
USAID: Repositioning Family Planning in Sub- Saharan Africa (August 2006). Retrieved on 06/06/2010. www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health//pop/techareas/repositioning/briefs/repo_subafr.pdf
Westoff, CF. Unmet Need for Modern Contraceptive Methods. DHS Analytical Studies No. 28. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF International, 2012.
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics: Kenya Demographic Health Survey (2008.)
World Bank. World Development Indicators. Washington, DC. 2009.
Gizaw A, Regassa N. Family planning service utilization in Mojo town, Ethiopia: A Population based study. Journal of Geography and Regional Planning Vol. 4(6), pp. 355-363, June 2011.
Aninyei, IR, Onyesom I, Ukuhor HO, Uzuegbu, UE, Ofili MI, Anyanwu EB. Knowledge, Attitude to modern family planning methods in Abraka communities, Delta state, Nigeria. East African Journal of Public Health. 2008 April;5(1).pp10-11
Rao GR, Moulasha K, Sureender S. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among fishermen in Tamil Nadu. The Journal of Family Welfare. 1993 September;39(3). p. 50-54.
Aryeetey R, Kotoh AM, Hindin, MJ. Knowledge, Perceptions and Ever Use of Modern Contraception among Women in the Ga East District, Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2010 December; 14(4):27.
Lasie A, Backer S. Husband- Wife Communication about Family Planning and Contraceptive Use in Kenya. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1997; 23: 15-20&33.
Karavus M, Cali S, Kalaca S, Cebeci D. Attitudes of married individuals towards oral contraceptives: a qualitative study in Istanbul, Turkey. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2004 Apr;30(2):95-8
Were EO,Karanja JK. Attitudes of males to contraception in a Kenyan rural population. East Afr Med J. 1994 Feb; 71(2):106-9.
Hall MAK, Stephenson RB, Juvekar S. Social and logistical barriers to the use of reversible contraception among women in a rural Indian village. J Health Popul Nutr. 2008 Jun; 26(2):241-50.
Agha S. Intentions to use contraceptives in Pakistan: implications for behavior change campaigns. BMC Public Health. 2010 Aug 2;10:450
Kumar M, Meena J, Sharma S, Poddar A, Dhalliwal V. Contraceptive Use Among Low-Income Urban Married Women in India. J Sex Med. 2010 Oct 4;1-7
Tang S, Tian L, Cao WW, Zhang K, Detels R, Li VC. Improving reproductive health knowledge in rural china--a web-based strategy. J Health Commun. 2009 Oct-Nov; 14(7):690-714.
Muia E, Ellertson C, Lukhando M, Flul B, Clark S, Olenja J. Emergency contraception in Nairobi, Kenya: knowledge, attitudes and practices among policymakers, family planning providers and clients, and university students. Contraception. 1999 Oct; 60(4):223-32.
Ogunjuyigbe PO, Ojofeitimi EO, Liasu A. Spousal communication, changes in partner attitude, and contraceptive use among the Yorubas of southwest Nigeria. Indian J Community Med. 2009 Apr; 34(2):112-6.
Hardee-cleaveland K. Communication key for family planning. Netw Res Triangle Park N C. 1992 Aug;13(1):13
Samandari G, Speizer IS, O'Connell K. The role of social support and parity in contraceptive use in Cambodia. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2010 Sep;36(3):122-31.
Wambui T, Ek AC, Alehagen S. Perceptions of family planning among low-income men in Western Kenya. Int Nurs Rev. 2009 Sep; 56(3):340-5.
S A Khasiani. Family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices among health centre personnel in Western Province of Kenya. Journal of obstetrics gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa (1991). Volume: 9, Issue: 1, Pages: 30-36
Kamal N. Influence of family head's reproductive behaviour on the use of modern contraceptive methods by other members of the family in rural Bangladesh. J Biosoc Sci. 1996 Jul 28 ;( 3):297-303.
Kamal N. The influence of husbands on contraceptive use by Bangladeshi women. Health Policy Plan. 2000 Mar; 15(1):43-51.
Lakew y, Reda AA, Tamene H, Benedict S, Deribe K. Geographical variation and factors influencing modern contraceptive use among married women in Ethiopia: evidence from a national population based survey. Reproductive Health 2013, 10:52
Lee RB, Nacionales LP, Pedroso L. The influence of local policy on contraceptive provision and use in three locales in the Philippines. Reprod Health Matters. 2009 Nov; 17(34):99-107.
Douthwaite M, Ward P. Increasing contraceptive use in rural Pakistan: an evaluation of the Lady Health Worker Programme. Health Policy Plan. 2005 Mar; 20(2):117-23.
Kamal SM, Islam MA. Contraceptive use: socioeconomic correlates and method choices in rural bangladesh. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2010 Oct; 22(4):436-50.
Tawye Y, Jotie F, Shigu T, Ngom P, Maggwa N. The potential impact of community-based distribution programmes on contraceptive uptake in resource-poor settings: evidence from Ethiopia. Afr J Reprod Health. 2005 Dec; 9(3):15-26.