Incidences and Predictors of HIV Positivity among Infants who Born from HIV Positive Mother who Have Follow Up at Two Hospitals of Southern Ethiopia, 2014
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 431-439
Received: Aug. 8, 2014; Accepted: Aug. 21, 2014; Published: Sep. 10, 2014
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Authors
Tariku Tadele, Department of Internal medicine, School of medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Alemu Tamiso, Department of Public health/Unit of epidemiology and biostatistics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Tafese Tadele, Departments of public health, Yirgalem College of medical sciences, Southern Ethiopia regional health bureau, Ethiopia
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Abstract
Introduction: Despite a dramatic progress in improvements regarding infant mortality due to HIV/AIDS in the past decades, HIV/AIDS is causing a devastating impact on the world’s children. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is by far the largest source of HIV infection in children under the age of 15, with 90% of the cases infected during pregnancy, birth, and major share is after birth.Therefore, this study follows infants after the first test (Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing) is negative, until the occurrences of HIV positivity and predictors associated with it in the two hospital of Southern Ethiopia. Objective: The aim was to assess the incidence, Survival experiences and predictors of HIV positivity among infants born from HIV positive mothers in two hospital of Southern Ethiopia, 2014. Methodology: Institution-Based Retrospective follow up study was conducted at Hawassa Referral and Yirgalem General Hospital from September 2000 to August 2005 E.C. Data was collected by trained BSc nurses from medical registration book of 485 exposed infants . It was entered in to EPI Info 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for further analysis. Both Bivariate and Multiple variable Cox regression analysis were conducted to identify predictors. P-value< 0.05 was considered as level of significance. Results: Among 457 participants included under analysis contributed for 4249.4 Person Months of follow up. Cumulative and overall incidence rate of HIV positivity among infants were 19(4.16%) and 4.47/1000 PM (95% CI: 4.02-4.92) respectively. Mean HIV free survival time difference between Exclusive breast feeding 20.2 (95 % CI, 19.6, 20.8)), mixed feeding (17.5 (95% CI, 15.5-19.5)) and exclusive formula feeding 16.8 (95% CI, 16.3, 18.4) were significant. Mixed breast feeding (AHR: 8.23(1.98, 34.2)), ARV prophylaxis (yes) (AHR: 0.19(95% CI, 0.04-0.89)), Maternal HAART (AHR: 0.16(95% CI, .041, 0.59) and SdNVP + AZT+ 3TC (AHR: 0.113(95% CI: 0.02, 0.61)) intervention were independent predictors of HIV positivity among exposed infants. Conclusion: The risk of mother to child transmission of HIV is high for HIV exposed infants. All mothers should start PMTCT intervention as a guideline and it is better to discourage mixed infant feeding to prevent the upcoming infants from the HIV infection.
Keywords
HIV Positivity, Incidence Rate, Cox regression Model, Ethiopia
To cite this article
Tariku Tadele, Alemu Tamiso, Tafese Tadele, Incidences and Predictors of HIV Positivity among Infants who Born from HIV Positive Mother who Have Follow Up at Two Hospitals of Southern Ethiopia, 2014, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 431-439. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20140205.19
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