Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 274-280
Received: Feb. 22, 2015; Accepted: Mar. 9, 2015; Published: Mar. 14, 2015
Views 3213      Downloads 294
Authors
Fathia Mohamed El-Nemr, Fathia Mohamed El-Nemr, Department of Pediatrics , Faculty of Medicine , Menoufia University, Shebin Elkom, Menoufia, Egypt
Hassan Saeid Badr, Fathia Mohamed El-Nemr, Department of Pediatrics , Faculty of Medicine , Menoufia University, Shebin Elkom, Menoufia, Egypt
Mohamed Salah Salem, Fathia Mohamed El-Nemr, Department of Pediatrics , Faculty of Medicine , Menoufia University, Shebin Elkom, Menoufia, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and associated risk factors among children were attended the general pediatric outpatient clinic of Menoufia University Hospital. Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most commonly seen developmental disorders, with significant impacts on the child's social, psychological, and scholastic functioning. Methods: The study was conducted on 600 children (5 - 12 years ) were attended the general pediatric outpatient clinic of Menoufia University Hospital . All studied patients were subjected to adequate history taking, full clinical examination, a questionnaire regarding socioeconomic, family and maternal variables and a parent-completed, ADHD Rating Scale of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms was used. Results: The study revealed that the prevalence of probable ADHD in our study was 19.7%. and was higher in males than in females with a ratio 2.7:1. The most common type of probable ADHD was the combined type and the least frequent type was the inattentive type. There were many factors that were sought to be associated with increase possibility of developing ADHD. Conclusion: The present study shows a high prevalence of probable ADHD in children. our study also revealed that probable ADHD was associated with many risk factors, prevalence was high in the male sex, living in urban areas, low socioeconomic families, large family size, living with a single parent, family history of ADHD, preterm children, low birth weight and bottle fed children.
Keywords
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Children, Prevalence, Risk Factors
To cite this article
Fathia Mohamed El-Nemr, Hassan Saeid Badr, Mohamed Salah Salem, Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 274-280. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150302.28
References
[1]
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Paediatrics 2011; 128:1007-1022.
[2]
Rabei A., Gaafar M, Omaima AM, Nabil RM, Reda AI. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and obsessive–compulsive disorders among secondary school students in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. Menoufia Medical Journal 2013; 26: 44-48.
[3]
Al-Hamed JH, Taha AZ, Sabra A, Bella H. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Is it a Health Problem among Male Primary School Children. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2008; 83: 165-182.
[4]
Cormier E. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review and update. J Pediatr Nurs 2008; 23:345-57.
[5]
St. Sauver JL, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Jacobsen SJ. Early life risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study. Mayo Clin Proc 2004; 79(9):1124-31.
[6]
Mick E, Faraone SV. Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2008; 17: 261-284.
[7]
Waschbusch DA, King S. Should sex specific norms be used to assess ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 2006; 74: 179-185.
[8]
Rowland AS, Skipper B, Rabiner DL, Umbach DM, Stallone L, Campbell RA et al. The shifting subtypes of ADHD: classification depends on how symptom reports are combined. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008; 36:731-43.
[9]
Spetie L, Arnold EL. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In: Martin A, Volkmar FR, (Eds). Lewis's Child and Adolescent Psychiatry a Comprehensive Approach Textbook. 4th edition. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2007: 323-343.
[10]
Homidi, Moayyad. Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among elementary school children of United Arab Emirates, unpublished doctoral dissertation, Amman Arab University. Amman: Jordan.2010.
[11]
Erşan EE, Dogan O, Doğan S, Sümer H. The distribution of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in school age children in Turkey. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004; 13: 354 –361.
[12]
Bathiche M E. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms in a culturally diverse, developing country, Lebanon (Doctoral dissertation). Montreal: McGill University, 2008.
[13]
Sheppard B, Chavira D, Azzam A, Grados MA, Umaña P, Garrido H, et al. ADHD Prevalence and Association with Hoarding Behaviors in Childhood-Onset OCD. Depress Anxiety 2010; 27: 667–674.
[14]
Meysamie A, Fard MD, Mohammadi MR. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschool-aged Iranian Children. Iran J Pediatr 2011; 21:467-472.
[15]
Al-Haggar M, El-Baz R, Youseff H, Othman N, Ali R. Overview on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children from Delta regions of Egypt (a 10 years-study). Journal of Pediatric Neurology 2006; 4 :15–18.
[16]
Amiri S, Fakhari A, Maheri M, Mohammad A. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary school children of Tabriz, North-West Iran. Pediatric Periapt Epidemiol 2010; 24:597-601.
[17]
Froehlich TE, Lanphear BP, Epstein JN, Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Kahn RS. Prevalence, Recognition, and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a National Sample of US Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2007; 161:857-864.
[18]
Farid MN, Sabbour SM, and Osman MH. Prevalence and risk factors of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity among school children .The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine 2008; 26:13-23.
[19]
Pelham WE, Fabiano GA, Massetti GM. Evidence-based assessment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. J. Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2006; 34: 449-476.
[20]
Cardo E, Bustillo M, Servera M. The predictive value of DSM-IV criteria in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its cultural differences. Rev Neurol 2007; 44: 19-22.
[21]
Possa A, Spanemberg L, Guardiola A. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder co-morbidity in a school sample of children. Arq Neuropsyquiatria 2005; 63:479-83.
[22]
Nafi OA. Prevalence of ADHD co-morbidities in children of South Jordan. European Scientific Journal 2013; 9:1857 - 7881.
[23]
Kashala E, Tylleskar T, ElgeKayembe KT, and Sommerfelt K . Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among School Children in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Afr Health Sci 2005; 5: 172-181.
[24]
Montiel-Nava C, Montiel-Barbero I, Peña JA. Clinical presentation of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a function of the gender. Invest Clin 2007; 48:459-68.
[25]
Bishry Z, Elwan M, Rashed N, Al Hamrawy L, El-Sayed S, El-Bahy M. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders in Primary School Children in Shebin El Kom. Current Psychiatry 2008; 15:5-12.
[26]
Pineda D A, Lopera F, Palacio J D, Ramirez D, Henao GC. Prevalence estimations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential diagnoses and comorbidities in a Colombian sample. Int J Neurosci. 2003;113: 49–71.
[27]
Venkata JA, Panicker AS. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in primary school children. Indian J Psychiatry 2013; 55:338-342.
[28]
Jenahi E, Khalil MS, Bella H. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in female schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 2012; 32: 462-468.
[29]
El-Tallawy HM, El–Behary A, Hassan WA, Shehata GA. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among elementary schools children in Assuit City. Egypt J. Neurol. Psychiat. Neurosurg 2005; 42: 517-526.
[30]
Hartung CM, Willcutt EG, Lahey BB, et al. Sex differences in young children who meet criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2002; 3:453-64.
[31]
Hurtig T, Ebeling H, Taanila A, Miettunen J, Smalley S, McGough J, et al. ADHD and comorbid disorders in relation to family environment and symptom severity. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007; 16:362-9.
[32]
Counts CA, Nigg JT, Stawicki JA, Rappley MD, von Eye A. Family adversity in DSM-IV ADHD combined and inattentive subtypes and associated disruptive behavior problems. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005; 44:690-8.
[33]
Banerjee TD, Middleton F, Faraone SV. Environmental risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Pediatric 2007; 96:1269-74.
[34]
Berger I, Felsenthal N. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and birth order. J Child Neurol 2009; 24: 692-696.
[35]
Masana M A, Lopez Seco F, Marti Serrano S, Acosta Garcia S. Correspondence on ''Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and birth order''. J Child Neurol 2011; 26: 395-396.
[36]
Frey C, wyss-Senn K, Bossi E. Subjective evaluation by parents and objective findings in former prenatal risk children. Zkinder- Jugen psychiatr 1995; 23: 84-94.
[37]
Farooqi A, Hagglof B, Sedin G, Gothefors L, Serenius F. Mental health and social competencies of 10 to 12 year old children born at 23 to 25 weeks of gestation in the 1990s: a Swedish national prospective follow-up study. Pediatrics 2007; 120:118 –133.\
[38]
Delobel-Ayoub M, Arnaud C, White-Koning M, Casper C, Pierrat V, Garel M, et al. Behavioral problems and cognitive performance at 5 years of age after very preterm birth: the EPIPAGE Study. Pediatrics 2009; 123:1485–1492.
[39]
Lindstrom K, Lindblad F, Hjern A. Preterm Birth and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Schoolchildren. Pediatrics 2011; 127: 858 -865.
[40]
Valdimarsdottir M, Hrafnsdottir AH, Magnosson P. The frequency of some factors in pregnancy and delivery for Icelandic children with ADHD. Laeknabladid 2006; 92:609-614.
[41]
Sasaluxnanon C, Kaewpornsawan T. Risk factor of birth weight below2,500 grams and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Thai children. J Med Assoc Thai 2005; 88:1514-8.
[42]
Nigg JT, Breslau N. Prenatal smoking exposure, low birth weight, and disruptive behavior disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007; 46:362-9.
[43]
Mimouni-Bloch A, Kachevanskaya A, Mimouni FB, Shuper A, Raveh E, Linder N. Breastfeeding may protect from developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Breastfeed Med 2013; 8:363-7.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186