Systematic Reviews of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension in Ethiopia: Finding the Evidence
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 514-519
Received: May 7, 2015;
Accepted: May 20, 2015;
Published: Jun. 2, 2015
Views 4428 Downloads 258
Mulugeta Molla, Mekelle University, College of health Sciences, Department of Nursing, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Background: Hypertension is one of the leading causes of global burden of disease. This paper is intended to provide compressive and up to date evidence on the prevalence and investigate the associated factors of Hypertension in Ethiopia from January, 2000 to April, 2015. Methods: A quantitative epidemiological systematic literature review was conducted by searching different published articles in different data bases which is written in English including MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Google scholar, Cochrane and grey literatures. The search was restricted to population based studies on hypertension in Ethiopia published between January 2000 and April 2015. All data were extracted independently by a single reviewer using a standardized protocol and data collection form. Nine publications met the inclusion criteria. The total pooled data were nine surveys involving over 13,327 participants. Results: The reported rate of hypertension is varied widely, with the highest rate of 31.5 % in male and the lowest rate of 0.8% in female, partly because of the differences in participants mean ages, source population and study settings. This review found a high prevalence of hypertension in urban residents and different associated factors including overweight, family history of hypertension, age, sex, sleeping for less than 5 hours, Oral contraceptive use, alcohol intake, physical inactivity, eating vegetable three or fewer days per week, salt use, obesity, higher education and vigorous recreational activities were identified. Conclusion and recommendation: Hypertension was considerably prevalent in Ethiopia. Health promotion strategy tailored to the education on modifiable risk factors and establishment of blood pressure screening in primary health care context would be of immense value both in urban and rural areas. This study was highlighting the need for implementation of timely and appropriate strategies for prevention and control of hypertension. Upcoming well-powered studies, using the standardized research design and covering more regions of the country are recommended. Further Meta-analysis study is also recommended.
Systematic Reviews of Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension in Ethiopia: Finding the Evidence, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 514-519.
Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Munter P, WheltonPK, He J: Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005, 365:217-23.
W.H.O: Global status report on Noncommunicable diseases; 2014
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. JAMA. 2003;289:2560–2572.
Causes of Death 2008 [online database]. Geneva, World Health Organization
Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990– 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012; 380(9859):2224−60.
W.H.O:GLOBAL HEALTH RISKS; Mortality and burden of diseaseattributable to selected major risks, 2009
A global brief on hypertension. Silent killer, global public health crisis. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
Prevention of cardiovascular disease: guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007.
W.H.O: A global brief on Hypertension; Silent killer, global public health crisis, World Health Day 2013
World Health Organization and World Economic Forum. From Burden to “Best Buys”: Reducing theEconomic Impact of Non-Communicable Diseases in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Geneva, World Health Organization and World Economic Forum, 2011
The Global Economic Burden of Non-communicable Diseases. World Economic Forum and the Harvard School of Public Health, 2011.
Tesfaye F: Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Ethiopia: the rural–urban gradient. J Hum Hypertens 2007, 21 (2):28–37
Central statistical Agency (CSA) [Ethiopia]. Ethiopia demographic and Health Survey. Central Statistical Authority, Addis Ababa. 2011: 1-22
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med. 2009; 6:e1000097.
Feyie B, Esayas K, Kifle W. Prevalence of Hypertension and its risk factors among adults in Bedele town. Ethio J Health Sci.,2014;24:1
Tesfa B, Fessahaye A. An Analysis of Survey Data on Chronic Non-Communicable Disease at Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, South West Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2015, pp. 281-290. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20150302.29
Esayas K, Yadani M, Sahilu A. Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based-cross-sectional survey. Integrated blood pres contr. 2013, 6:111–117
Takele T, Henok A. Hypertension and associated factors among University students in Gonder, Ethiopia. BMC Public health 2014, 14:937 http://www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2458/14/937
Mekoya D. Pattern of blood pressure distribution and prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia: disclosing the hidden burden. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014, 14:33 http://www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2261/14/33
Assefa B, Haftu B, Alemayehu B. Prevalence and associated factors of Hypertension among adult population, in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia. ijipsr, 2(3),2014 ,653-668
Tesfaye F, Byass P, Wall S: Population based prevalence of high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa: uncovering a silent epidemic. BMC CardiovascDisord 2009, 9:39.
HeleloTP, Gelaw YA, Adane AA (2014) Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Durame Town, Southern Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 9(11): e112790. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112790
Awoke A, Awoke T, Alemu S, Megabiaw B. Prevalence, and associated factors of hypertension among adults in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2012; 12 (1):1 6.Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2261/12/113