Epidemiology of Adenovirus and Genotypic Characteristics of Group A Rotavirus Among Diarrhoeic Children Aged 0 to 5 Years Old in the Ngaoundere Region of Cameroon
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 4, July 2015, Pages: 525-537
Received: Apr. 13, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 29, 2015;
Published: Jun. 6, 2015
Views 3421 Downloads 94
Kagning Tsinda Emmanuel, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Fokunang Charles Ntungwen, Department of Pharmacotoxicology and pharmacokinetics, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon
Tchuenguem Fohouo Fernand-Nestor, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Nwabo Kamdje Armel Herve, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
Nukenine Elias Nchinwan, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundere, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
In the context of recent introduction of a Rotavirus vaccine, little is known about the epidemiology of Rotavirus and Adenovirus gastroenteritis in Cameroon in general and in Ngaoundere specifically. The main objective of this study was to determine the frequency of Rotavirus and Adenovirus antigens as well as to characterise circulating Rotavirus strains in children with diarrhoea in Ngaoundere. A convenience sampling method was used and stool samples collected from patients consulting at the study sites from April to July 2014 were subjected to a qualitative immunochromatographic test to detect group antigens of group A Rotavirus and Adenovirus. Socio-demographic data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Stool samples tested positive for Group A Rotavirus were genotyped by multiplex nested RT-PCR method. Logistic regression, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were performed when appropriate. P-value < 0.05 at 95% confidence interval was considered statistically significant. Adenovirus antigen was detected in 26.4% (56) of children, whereas, group A Rotavirus was detected in 2.3% (5); the co-infection rate was 5.3%. Vomiting, fever, moderate dehydration, severe dehydration and the presence of polymorphonuclear cells in stool were significantly associated with the presence of Adenovirus antigen in stool. Group A Rotavirus was also found to circulate in Ngaoundere and the G1P genotype showed indication of being the most represented. Adenovirus antigen was shown to be an important agent in childhood acute gastroenteritis in Ngaoundere and this study has been used as a baseline data for this infection in this region of Cameroon. The appropriate management of viral acute gastroenteritis necessitates the detection of Rotavirus and Adenovirus in clinical routine practice. Furthermore, Rotarix™ vaccination should be encouraged and the populations should be educated on hygiene practices.
Kagning Tsinda Emmanuel,
Fokunang Charles Ntungwen,
Tchuenguem Fohouo Fernand-Nestor,
Nwabo Kamdje Armel Herve,
Nukenine Elias Nchinwan,
Epidemiology of Adenovirus and Genotypic Characteristics of Group A Rotavirus Among Diarrhoeic Children Aged 0 to 5 Years Old in the Ngaoundere Region of Cameroon, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 3, No. 4,
2015, pp. 525-537.
UN. "United Nations millennium development goals", [cited 2014 October 23]; Available from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/.
WHO. "Diarrheal disease", Media Centre [cited 2014 December 2014]; Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/index.html.
S. Levidiotou, C. Gartzonika, D. Papaventsis, C. Christaki, E. Priavali, N. Zotos, E. Kapsaliand G. Vrioni, "Viral agents of acute gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Greece.", Clin. Microbiol. Infect., vol. 6(15), 2009, pp. 596–598.
D. L. Pacini, A. M. Collierand F. M. Henderson, "Adenovirus infections and respiratory illnesses in children in group day care", J.Infect Dis. , vol. 156, 1987, pp. 920-926.
D. Subekti, M. Lesmana, P. Tjaniadi, N. Safari, E. Frazier, C. Simanjuntak, S. Komalarini, J. Taslim, J. R. Campbelland B. A. Oyofo, "Incidence of Norwalk-like viruses, rotavirus and adenovirus infection in patients with acute gastroenteritis in Jakarta, Indonesia", FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol, vol. 33(1), 2002 pp. 27-33.
F. Stevenson and V. Mautner, "Aspects of the molecular biology of enteric adenoviruses",in Perspectives in Medical Virology Viral Gastroenteritised., U. Desselberger, Editor., Elsevier, 2003, pp. 389-406.
WHO. "Estimated rotavirus deaths for children under 5 years of age: 2008, 453 000", [cited 2014 May 12]; Available from: http://www.who.int/entity/immunization/monitoring_surveillance/burden/estimates/rotavirus/ChildRota2008.xls.
INS, "Rapport final du TBS(Tableau de Bord social) 3 sur la situation sociale des enfants et des femmes au Cameroun ",in., 2009, pp. 47.
G. M. Ruiz-Palacios, I. Perez-Schael, F. R. Velazquez, H. Abate, T. Breuer, S. C. Clemens, B. Cheuvart, F. Espinoza, P. Gillard, B. L. Innis, Y. Cervantes, A. C. Linhares, P. Lopez, M. Macias-Parra, E. Ortega-Barria, V. Richardson, D. M Rivera-Medina, L. Rivera, B. Salinas, N. Pavia-Ruz, J. Salmeron, R. Ruttimann, J. Valdesuso, C. Tinoco, P. Rubio, E. Nunez, M. L. Guerrero, J. P. Yarzabal, S. Damaso, N. Tornieporth, X. Saez-Llorens, R. F. Vergara, T. Vesikari, A. Bouckenooghe, R. Clemens, B. De-Vosand M. O'Ryan., "Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. ", N Engl J Med, vol. 354, 2006, pp. 11-22.
Wikipedia. "Géographie du Cameroun", Géographie de l’Afrique 2 march 2015 [cited 2015 5 April ]; Available from: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%A9ographie_du_Cameroun#Le_domaine_tropical.
BUCREP,"Rapport de présentation des résultats définitifs du 3 è RGPH", Editor: Yaounde, 2005.
Climatemps. "Ngaoundere Climate & Temperature", [cited 2015 March 5]; Available from: http://www.ngaoundere.climatemps.com/map.php.
WHO,"Generic protocols for hospital-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children and a community-based survey on utilization of health care services for gastroenteritis in children (Field test version)", Editor WHO: Geneva, 2002.
Biocare,"Instructions for use of the Rota/Adeno Combo Dipstick", Editor Biocare 2010, pp. 1-2.
J. R. Gentsch, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, V. Gouvea, M. Gorziglia, J. Flores, B. K. Dasand M. K. Bhan, "Identification of group A rotavirus gene 4 types by polymerase chain reaction", J Clin Microbiol vol. 30, 1992, pp. 1365-1373.
V. Gouvea, R. I. Glass, P. Woods, K. Taniguchi, H. F. Clark, B. Forresterand Z. Y. Fang, "Polymerase chain reaction amplification and typing of rotavirus nucleic acid from stool specimens", J Clin Microbiol vol. 28, 1990, pp. 276-282.
WHO,"Manual of rotavirus detection and characterization methods (WHO/IVB/08.17)", Editor Expanded Programme on Immunization, Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals: Geneva, 2009, pp. 146.
J.M. Last, "A Dictionary of Epidemiology". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, pp.
A. Krämer, M. Akmatovand M. Kretzschmar, "Modern Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Statistics for Biology and Health",in., Springer Science+Business Media, 2010, pp. 85-87.
M. Aminu, A. A. Ahmad, J. U. Umoh, M. C. de-Beer, M. D. Esonaand A. D. Steele, "Adenovirus infection in children with diarrhea disease in Northwestern Nigeria", Ann Afr Med, vol. 6(4), 2007, pp. 168-73.
WHO. "Portail d'information - Médicaments essentiels et produits de santé; Une ressource de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé", 10 February 2015 [cited 2015 April 5]; Available from: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/fr/d/Jwhozip29f/7.3.html.
L. Kristen, "Vesikari Clinical Severity Scoring System Manual". PATH 2011, pp.
F. S. Mhalu, H. Myrmel, A. Msengiand G. Haukenes, "Prevalence of infection with Rotavirus and enteric Adenoviruses among children in Tanzania", NIPH Ann., vol. 11, 1988, pp. 3-7
V. N. Ndze, D. Adiogo, C. N. Fokunang, K. H. Gonsu, E. A. Tembe-Fokunangand O. M. T Abena, "Enteric Prevalence of Rotavirus and Adenovirus in Under Five Children Predisposed to Acute Diarrhea in Yaounde Cameroon", Health Sci. Dis, vol. 11(3), 2010.
I. Wilhelmi, E. Romanand A. Samchez-Fauquiera, "Viruses causing gastroenteritis.", Clin. Microbiol. Infect, vol. 9, 2003, pp. 247-262.
R. Hamkar, "Prevalence of Rotavirus,Adenovirus, and Astrovirus Infections among Patients with Acute Gastroenteritis in, Northern Iran. ", Iranian J Publ Health, vol. 39(2), 2010, pp. 45-51
Z. A. R. Samarbaf, R. Pirmoradi, A. Shamsizadehand M. Makvandi, "Prevalence of adenoviruses 40 and 41 in children less than five years suffering from acute gastroenteritis hospitalized in Ahvaz Abuzar Hospital", Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, vol. 2, 2010, pp. 48-52.
S. Modarres, F. Jam-Afzonand S. Modarres, "Enteric Adenovirus infection in infants and young children with acute Gastroenteritis in Tehran", Acta Medica Iranica, vol. 44(5), 2006 pp. 349-353.
K. N. Leppard,"Adenoviruses: Molecular Biology", Editor Academic Press: University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, 2008, pp. 419-425.
M. Motamedifar, A. Elhamand T. S. Pedram, "Frequency of Rotavirus and Adenovirus Gastroenteritis Among Children in Shiraz, Iran", Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, vol. 15(8), 2013, pp. 729-733.
M. R. G. O’Gorman and A. D. Donnenberg, "Handbook of human immunology". ed. R.G. Maurice and D.A. Donnenberg. CRC Press, 2008, pp 429.
R.P. Silletti, G. Leeand E. Ailey, "Role of stool screening tests in diagnosis of inflammatory bacterial enteritis and in selection of specimens likely to yield invasive enteric pathogens", Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 34(5), 1996, pp. 1161-1165.
M. D. Esona, G. E. Armahand A. D. Steele, "Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus infection in Western Cameroon", J Trop Pediatr, (49), 2003, pp. 160–163.
V. N. Ndze, E. A. Achidi, H. K. Gonsu, E. E. Lyonga, M. D. Esona, B. Krisztianand M. T. Obama, "Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea in children under 5 years in Northern Cameroon", Pan African Medical Journal, , 2012, pp. 73.
A. Boula, D. Waku-Kouomou, M. N. Kinkela, M.D. Esona, G. Kemajou, D. Mekontsoc, S. Mapaseka, V. N. Ndze, I. Emahe, S. Ela, B. A. Dahlf, M. Kobela, F. Kathleen, Cavallaro, G. A. E. Mballa, J. R. Genstch, M. D. Bowenand P. K. Ndombo, "Molecular surveillance of rotavirus strains circulating in Yaoundé, Cameroon, September 2007–December 2012", Infect Genet Evol, 2014.
F. A. Mbuh, A. G. Enyimah, S. A. Omilabu, A. A. Ahmadand J. U. Umoh, "Molecular epidemiology of group A human rotaviruses in North West region, cameroon", Pan African Medical Journal, vol. 12(108), 2012, pp. 1-8.
K. Levy, E.H. Alanand N.S.J. Eisenberg, "Seasonality of rotavirus disease in the tropics: a systematic review and meta-analysis", Int J Epidemiol, vol. 38(6), 2009, pp. 1487-1496.
R.L. Ward and C.S. Ashley, "Identification of the virucidal agent in wastewater sludge.", Appl Environ Microbiol, vol. 33, 1977, pp. 860-864
O. C. Pancorbo, " Infectivity and antigenicity reduction rates of human rotavirus strain WA in fresh waters", Appl Environ Microbiol, vol. 53(8), 1987, pp. 1803-1811.
CDC,"The Pink Book: Course Textbook ", Editor 2012, pp. 263-274.
WHO, "Rotavirus vaccines: an update", World Health Organization, Weekly Epidemiological Record, (84), 2009, pp. 533-540.