Challenges of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women of Reproductive Age in Kisii Town, Kisii County, Kenya
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 289-296
Received: May 17, 2016;
Accepted: Jun. 3, 2016;
Published: Jun. 17, 2016
Views 4712 Downloads 158
Robert M. Kei, Department of Environmental Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Julius K. M’Ndegwa, Department of Civil Engineering, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Taratisio Ndwiga, Department of Environmental Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Faith Masika, Department of Environmental Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya
Introduction: Cervical cancer is a preventable non communicable disease of public health importance. It is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Cervical cancer is a prevalent yet preventable cause of death among Kenyan women. The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, practice and barriers towards screening for premalignant cervical lesions among women aged 15 years and above years in Kisii Town, Kisii County. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used and the sample population was selected among women in Kisii town. Data was collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. This instrument was pretested in a neighboring town to ascertain validity. Random sampling was used, in order to give every woman in Kisii Town opportunity to be included in the study. The sample size of 151 respondents was realized using Fisher et al, (1998). formula. Data Analysis: The SPSS version 20.0 was used to analyze the data which was presented in prose, figures and tables. Chi-square test was used to measure the strength of associations between the various variables where a p-value of = or <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Knowledge on cervical cancer and screening was very low among women in Kisii Town, because 20.5% knew about vaginal bleeding and 15% knew about having multiple sexual partners as a risk factor. There is relationship between the level of education and belief on the cure for cancer (P = 0.000), those who are more educated believed that cervical cancer can be cured at early stages while those with less education believed that cancer cannot be cured. Conclusion and Recommendation: Knowledge on cervical cancer and screening was low, hence poor practice on screening among women. Main barriers for not screening were ignorance and fear of positive results. It may be recommended that cancer screening machines should be purchased by County government and distributed to town health facilities at subsidized charge for screening. Also, awareness creation including counseling should be intensified in order to promote screening compliance.
Robert M. Kei,
Julius K. M’Ndegwa,
Challenges of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women of Reproductive Age in Kisii Town, Kisii County, Kenya, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 4, No. 4,
2016, pp. 289-296.
Henley, P. (2012). Preventing preventable cervical cancer in Kenya. Africa portal, Vol. 38 Pp 1-10.
Government of Kenya (2012) National cervical cancer prevention program: Strategic Plan 2012 – 2015. Ministry of public health and sanitation and Ministry of Health.
Saad Aliyu Ahmed, Kabiru Sabitu, Suleiman Hadejia Idris, and Rukaiya Ahmed.(2013). Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2013 Sep-Oct; 54 (5): 316–319. doi: 10.4103/0300-1652.122337
Megan J Huchko, Jennifer Sneden, Hannah H Leslie, Naila Abdulrahim, May Maloba, Elizabeth Bukusi & Craig R Cohen (2013). A comparison of two visual inspection methods for cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women in Kenya. World Health Organization. 2013. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13.122051
WHO fact sheet No 380 September, 2013
WHO/ICO (2010). Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papil-lomavirus and Related Cancers in World. Summary Report 2010.
Karly S, Silvia de sanjose and Philippe M. (2009). Epidemiology and prevention of human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in sub-saharan Africa:. Tropical medicine and International Health, 14 (10), 1287-1302.
Anorlu, R. (2008). Cervical cancer: the Sub-saharan African Perspective. Reproductive health matters, Vol. 16, Issue 32, Pp 41–49. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0968-8080(08)32415-X
Gichangi P, Estamble B and Bwayo J (2003). Knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and pap smear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital. International journal of Gynecological Cancer, 827-833.
Wangui., J. (2011). Cancer in kenya should not be a death sentence. the WIP article. Article accessed from: http://thewip.net/2011/12/20 on 18th january, 2015.
Kisii County government. Investiments in agriculture. www.kisii.go.ke/index.php/county-profile/position-and-size. Accessed 28/6/2015.
Kisii referal Hospital (2014) Kisii teaching and referral hospital. Retrieved 10th March, 2015, from kisii hospital.org/index.php/2014-03-08-08-28/brief-profile
Ayaji I. O and Adowole I F (1998). Knowledge and Altitude of general outpatient attendants in Nigeria to cervical cancer. The central African Journal of medicine. 1998 Vol. 44 (2), pp 41-43.
Sudenga L Staci, R. F. (2013). Knowledge, Attitude Practice and perceived risk of cervical cancer among kenyan women. KISUMU. sanitation, M. O. (2012). National cancer prevention program strategic plan 2012-2015.
James John (2011). The knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers towards screening for premalignant cervical lesions among women aged 18years and above, in songea urban, Ruvuma, Tanzania. “A dissertation Submitted in partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Master of Medicine (Obstetrics and Gynecology) of the Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. Tanzania”.
Whitfield (1995) “Premalignant and Malignant diseases of the cervi” In P. K. R., Dewhurst's Text book of Obstetrics and Gynaecology for Post graduates (Pp. 717-737). Oxford: Blackwell science.
Lazcano-Ponce EC, Moss S, Alonso de Ruiz P, Salmerón-Castro J, Hernández-Avila M.(1999) Cervical cancer screening in developing countries: Why is it ineffective? The case of Mexico. Arch Med Res 1999; Vol. 30(3): 240-250.
Yu CK, Rhymer J. (1998). "Womens attitudes to and awareness of smear testing and cervical cancer.". (Y. CK, Ed.) Br J Fam Plann, Vol. 23 (4), Pg 123-33.
Wong LP, Wong YL, Low WY, Khoo EM, Shuib R. (2009). Knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and screening among Malaysian women who have never had a Pap smear: a qualitative study. Singapore Med. Journal. Vol. 50 (1): 49-53.
Al Sairafi, M. and F. A. Mohamed, (2009). Knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to cervical cancer screening among kuwaiti women. Medical Principles and Practice, Vol. 18 (1): Pg 35-42.
Anorlu R. I, Banjo A. A. F., et. al. (2000). Cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening; Level of awareness in women attending a primary health care facility in Lagos. Nigeria post graduate medical journal, Vol. 70 (16).
Abotchie and Shokar (2009) Cervical cancer screening among college students in Ghana: knowledge and health beliefs. Int J Gynecol Cancer. Vol. 19 (3): 412-6.
Anya SE, Oshi DC, Nwosu SO, et al. (2005). Knowledge, attitude and practice of female health professionals regarding cervical cancer and pap smear. Niger J Med, Vol. 14 (3), 283-286.
Nwankwo K. C., Aniebue U. U., Aguwa E. N., Anarado A. N. and Agunwah E. (2011): Knowledge Attitudes and Practices of Cervical Cancer Screening among Urban and Rural Nigerian Women: a Call for Education and Mass Screening. European Journal of Cancer Care, Vol. 20 (3) Pp. 362-367.
Wellensiek N, M. M. (2002). Knowledge of cervical cancer screening and use of cervical cancer screening facilities among women from various socio-economic backgrounds in Durban, Kwazulu Natal, South Africa. International Journal of Gynecology, Vol. 12 (4), 376-382.
Udigwe. (2006). Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (pap smear). Niger J Clin Pract, Vol. 9 (1), Pg 40-43.
Victoria K Fort, Mary Sue Makin, Aaron J Siegler, Kevin Ault, and Roger Rochat (2011). Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi. Patient Prefer Adherence. Vol. 5: 125-131.
Thomas Veronica, Tariq Saleem, Rachel Abraham (2011). Barriers to effective uptake of cancer screening among black and minority ethnic groups. Research study. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 2005, Vol. 11, (11), Pp 562-571.
Byrd, T., Peterson, S., Chavez, R., & Heckert, A. (2004). Cervical cancer screening beliefs among young hispanic women. Preventive Medicine, Vol. 38, 192-197.
Yifru T, and Asherber. (2008). Knowledge attitute and practice of screening for carcinoma of the cervix among reproductive health clients at three teaching hospitals, Addid Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 2 (1).
(MOH and MOPHS) Ministry of Health Services and Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (2012): National Guidelines for Prevention and Management of Cervical, Breast and Prostate Cancers.
Fisher, A. A., Laing, J. E. and Strocker, J. E. (1998). Handbook for Family Planning, Operation Research Design in Sampling. Population Council, 40-45.
Mupepi, Sylvia C.; Sampselle, Carolyn M.; Johnson, Timothy R. B. (2011). "Knowledge, Attitudes, and Demographic Factors Influencing Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior of Zimbabwean Women." Journal of Women's Health, Vol. 20 (6): 943-952.
Pierre Marie Tebeu, Catherine Mc Carey, David Pirek, Michel Boulvain, Anderson Sama Doh, and Patrick Petignat (2011). Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. BMC Womens Health. Vol. 11: 45. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-11-45.
Austin, L. T., F. Ahmad, M.-J. McNally and D. E. Stewart, (2002) Breast and cervical cancer screening in hispanic women: A literature review using the health belief model. Women's health issues: official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health, Vol. 12 (3): 122.