Water and Sanitary Conditions of a Typical Faculty of Public Health Building in a Nigerian University
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2017, Pages: 103-109
Received: Jan. 6, 2017;
Accepted: Jan. 18, 2017;
Published: Feb. 17, 2017
Views 2372 Downloads 61
Adejumo Mumuni, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Ana Godson Rowland, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Oloruntoba Elizabeth Omoladun, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Morakinyo Oyewale Mayowa, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Hammed Taiwo Babatunde, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
This study investigated water and sanitary conditions of a typical faculty of Public Health building, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 108 consented students and staff members were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Fifteen (15) toilet facilities with 45 rooms were also observed using an observational checklist. Respondents’ age was 28.9±5.5 years, 63.0% were female, 92.6% were students and all participants had completed tertiary education. The main source of water supply into the building was piped water (85.2%) and 77.9% used it for flushing toilet. Only 22.2% reported that the water source is readily accessible all the time while 63.0% stated that the quantity of water available got depleted during the afternoon time. On-site observations revealed that 8 (53.4%) of the toilet facilities had inadequate water supply. Majority (81.5%) reported water closet as the main type of sanitary convenience in the building while the major shortcomings of the toilets mentioned were non-accessibility (88.9%) and shortage of water supply (77.8%). All (100%) of the toilet rooms observed had no severe odour while 2 (4.4%) of the toilet rooms had appreciable quantities of vectors breeding. About fifty-nine percent had good attitude towards the sanitary conveniences within the building and significantly, 75.0% of female respondents had good attitude compared to 25.0% of their male counterpart (p<0.05). Twelve (11.1%) respondents said they practiced handwashing with water and soap and none (0.0%) reported presence of signs that encourage good hygiene practices in the toilet. Wash hand basins was observed to be present and functional within all the 15 (100%) toilet facilities, water was present in 10 (66.7%) of the facilities while soap was absent in all the 15 (100%) facilities observed. Constant water supply should be sustained, handwashing materials and signs that encourage good hygiene practices should be provided within the toilets.
Ana Godson Rowland,
Oloruntoba Elizabeth Omoladun,
Morakinyo Oyewale Mayowa,
Hammed Taiwo Babatunde,
Water and Sanitary Conditions of a Typical Faculty of Public Health Building in a Nigerian University, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2017, pp. 103-109.
Singh, M. Opening address to the third South Asian conference on sanitation, New Delhi, 18 November 2008. Available: https://sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/category/regions/south-asia/page/71/ [Accessed 06 January 2017].
Esrey, S. A., Potash, J. B., Roberts, L. and Shiff, C. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 1991; 69: 609–621.
WHO/UNICEF. Progress on sanitation and drinking-water – 2010 update. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010; pp1-60.
WHO. Creating healthy cities in the 21st century. In: Satterthwaite D, editor. The Earthscan reader on sustainable cities. London: Earthscan Publications, 1999; pp 137–172.
Feachem, R. G., Bradley, D. J., Garelick, H. and Mara, D. D. Sanitation and disease. Health aspects of wastewater and excreta management. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. 1983; 326 p.
WHO/UNICEF. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, Global water supply and sanitation assessment, report, 2000. WHO, Geneva. 2000; Available: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2000.pdf [accessed 06 January 2017].
WHO. Water Sanitation and Hygiene links to Health, Facts and Figures, updated March 2004. WHO, Geneva. 2004; Available: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/en/factsfigures04.pdf [accessed 06 January 2017].
Enabor, B., Sridhar, M. K. C., and Olaseha, I. O. Integrated water management by urban poor women: A Nigerian slum experience. Water Resources Development. 1998; 14 (4): 505-512.
Oloruntoba, E. O., Agbede, O. A. and Sridhar, M. K. C. Seasonal variation in physicochemical quality of household drinking water in Ibadan, Nigeria. ASSET- An International Journal. 2006; (Series B) 5 (1): 70-81.
Oloruntoba, E. O. and Sridhar, M. K. C. Bacteriological quality of drinking water from source to household in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2007; 36: 169-175.
DFID. Water: Knowledge and Research: Department of International Development. 2004; Issue 18: p12.
Jenkins, M. W. and Curtis, V. Achieving the ‘good life’: Why some people want latrines in rural Benin. Soc Sci Med. 2005; 61: 2446–59.
Jenkins, M. W. and Scott, B. Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana. Social Science Med. 2007; 64: 2427–42.
Mahon, T. and Fernandes, M. Menstrual hygiene in South Asia: a neglected issue for WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) programmes. Gend Dev. 2010; 18.1: 99–113.
UNICEF and WHO. Diarrhea: Why children are still dying and what can be done Geneva. 2009; Available: whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598415_eng.pdf [accessed 06 January 2017].
Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council. Vision 21: A shared vision for hygiene and water supply and framework for action. Proceedings of the Second World Water Forum, The Hague – 22, March, Geneva, Switzerland. 2010.
Siwolo, I. A. The Financial Challenges Facing the Management of Primary Schools after the Introduction of F. P. E: A case of Wetlands Division, Nairobi. Kenya; Unpublished Med Thesis. Nairobi: Kenyatta University. 2004.
Asyago, B. An Investigation into the Challenges Facing the Free Primary Education Management: The Case of Machakos District. Kenya. Unpublished Med Thesis, Nairobi: Kenyatta University. 2005.
Mugo, E. W. Strategies Adopted by Primary Schools Head teachers in Managing Free Primary Education in Embu District Kenya: Unpublished Med Thesis, Nairobi: Kenyatta University. 2006.
Zomerplaag, J. and Mooijman, A. Child – friendly hygiene and sanitation facilities in schools: indispensable to effective hygiene education. Technical paper series No. 47. International water and sanitation centre, Delft and United Nations Children’s Fund, New York. 2005.
World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Hygiene Practices. WHO Press, Geneva 27, Switzerland. 2006
World Health Organization. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Standards for Schools in Low-Cost Settings. Geneva, Switzerland. 2009.
Njuguna V., Karanja B., Thuranira M., Shordt K., Snel M., Cairncross S., Biran A., Schmidt W.-P. The Sustainability and Impact of School Sanitation, Water and Hygiene Education in Kenya. UNICEF and IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre; New York, NY, USA and Delft, The Netherlands. 2008.
Lundblad B., Hellstrom A. L. Perceptions of school toilets as a cause for irregular toilet habits among schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years. Journal of School Health. 2005; 75: 125–128.
Vernon S., Lundblad B., Hellstrom A. L. Children’s experiences of school toilets present a risk to their physical and psychological health. Child Care, Health Development. 2003; 29: 47–53.
Bolt, E., Shordt, K. and Krukkert, I. School sanitation and hygiene education results from the assessment of a 6-country pilot project delft. International Water and Sanitation Centre, Netherlands. 2006.