Social Support, Body Image Perception and Depressive Symptoms, Among University Students in Nigeria, by Gender and Ethnicity
Background: The health determinant model indicates that certain socio-cultural, socio-demographic, environmental, and lifestyle factors influence health status and wellbeing of any population group in any given nation, . Previous studies have suggested the need for regional and interregional comparison of health inequalities due to the interaction of these factors. AIMs: This study investigated social support, body image perception and depressive symptoms by sex and ethnicity among university students in Nigeria. Method: The study was a cross sectional survey. Full time university students were recruited from six universities within the major three ethnic groups in Nigeria.2500 anonymous questionnaire was sent to students during a class lecture, 1549 responses were valid, while 563 responses were rejected for missing data especially sex and ethnicity and 388 students did not return their questionnaire. The variables examined were, demographic, income status, social support, body image perception and depressive symptoms. Descriptive tests, chi-square tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were conducted. Results: The result showed that depression indicated significant differences by gender and ethnicity, with students from the Hausa ethnic group reporting depression more than other ethnic groups, and female students more than males. Body image indicated a sex*ethnicity interaction effect for theideal female body image. Further analysis of the data suggested that Igbo males and Yoruba females’ preferred bigger female body size. Irrespective of ethnicity, the study indicated that more female students preferred bigger female body sizes than males. With regard to social support and monthly income, the result indicated sex*ethnicity interaction effects, where female students from the Hausa ethnic group reported better social support and monthly income. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the mental health of female students in the sample were poorer than those of male students and female students from the Hausa ethnic group demonstrating the worst possible health outcome, despite a morefavorable social support and income status. This study made a major contribution to the understanding that people who live among regions with conflict and violence may report poor psychological health compared to those that live in a conflict free zones.
Ezenna Michael Agwu,
Mark De Ste Croix,
Social Support, Body Image Perception and Depressive Symptoms, Among University Students in Nigeria, by Gender and Ethnicity, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 5, No. 3,
2017, pp. 263-274.
Dahlgren, G., & Whitehead (1991). In Lewis, G. H., Sheringham, J., Kalim, K., & Crayford J.
Laska, M. N., Pasch, K. E., Lust, K., Story, M., Ehlinger, E., Latent, E. (2009). Class analysisof lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among college youths. Journal ofPreventive Science, 10; 376-386.
Jackson, R. A., Berry, T. R., & Kennedy, M. (2009). The relationship between lifestyle and campus eating behaviors in male and female university students. College university Journal43 (3).
Van Rensburg, C. J., &Surujlal, N. (2013). Gender differences related to the health and lifestyle patterns of university students. Journal of Interdisciplinary Health Science, 18 (1).
Mikolajczyk, R. T, Maxwell, A. E, Naydenova, V, Meier, S., & Ansari, W. (2008). Depressive symptoms and perceived burdens related to being a student: Survey in three Europeancountries. Journal of Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 4, 19.
Pullman, A. W., Masters, R. C., Zalot, L. C. (2009). Effect of the transition from high schoolto university on anthropometric and lifestyles variables in males. Journal ofAppliedPhysiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 34(2):162-171.
Ulla Diez, S. M., Perez-Fortis, A. (2010). Socio-demographic predictors of health behavioursin Mexican college students. Health Promotion International, 25 (1):85-93.
Hacihasanoglu, R., Yildirim, A., Karakurt, P., &Saglam, R (2011). Healthy lifestyle behaviourin university students and influential factors in eastern Turkey. International Journal ofNursing Practice, 17(1), 43-53.
Aldeen, L. D., & Ibrahim, C. (2014). Knowledge and practice of dietary and healthy lifestyle in a sample of medical and non-medical college students in Baghda. World Family Medicine Journal, 12 (3).
Adewuya, A. O., Ola B., A., Aloba, O. O., Mapayi, B. M., &Oginni, O. O. (2006). Depression amongst Nigerian university students. Journal of Social Psychiatry and Psychiatry Epidemiology, 41; 674-678.
Aregbeshola, R. A. (2011). The political, economic and dynamics of Nigeria: A synopsis. Asian Briefing, 39, 1-7.
Akuede, O., Idogho, P. O., &Imonikhe, J. S. (2012) Increasing access to university education in Nigeria: Present challenges and suggestions for the future. The African symposium, 12(1), 3-12.
Philips, D. A. (2004). Nigeria geography. Philadephia; Chelsea House
Terrass, F. Benjelloun, M. (2010). The effect of water shortages on health and humandevelopment. Perspectives in Public health, 132(5).
Bangdiwala, S. I. Fonn, S. Okoye, O., &Tollman, S. (2010). Work force resources for healthin developing countries. Journal of Public Health Reviews, 32: 296-318.
Mancini L (2009). Comparative Trends Ethno-Regional Inequalities in Ghana and Nigeria:Evidence from Demographic and Health surveys. Crise working paper No.72. Retrieved on December, 21, 2011, from http//:www.Crise.ox.ac.uk/
Omoregie, N., & Abraham, O. A. (2009). Persistent gender inequality in Nigerianeducation. Retrieved August 17, 2013, from http://nau.edu/.
National Bureau of Statistics.(NBS, 2010).The review of the Nigerian economy. Retrieved onMay, 2, 2012 from http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng.
Steptoe. A., Wardle. J., Fuller. R., Davidsdottir, S., Davou. B., & Justo, J. (2002). Seatbeltuse, attitudes, and changes in legislation: An international study. American Journal ofPreventive Medicine, 23, 254-259.
Garrusi, B., Safizadch, H., &Pourhosseni, O. (2008). A study on the Lifestyle of the Iranian university students. Iranian Journal of psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, 2(2).
WHO. (2012), Country cooperation strategy at a glance. Retrieved on June, 10, 2013, from http://www.who.int/countries/nga
Garrusi, B., Safizadch, H., &Pourhosseni, O. (2008). A study on the Lifestyle of the Iranianuniversity students. Iranian Journal of psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences, 2(2).
Schmidt M. (2012). Predictors of self-rated health and lifestyle behaviours in Swedish universitystudents. Global Journal of Health Science, 4(4)1-14.
Onyechi, U. A., & Okolo, A. C. (2008). Prevalence of obesity among undergraduate students, living in hall of residence, university of Nigeria, Nsukka campus Enugu state. Animal Research International 5(3), 928-931.
Onyezugbo, E. U. (2010). Self-efficacy and test anxiety as correlates of academicperformance. International Research Journal 1 (10), 477-480.
Saunders, M, Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2000). Research Methods for Business Students (2nded.). Harlow, Pitman.
Bayram, N., &Bilgel, N. (2008). The prevalence and socio-demographic correlations ofdepression, anxiety and stress among a group of university students. Journal of Social Psychiatry and Psychiatry Epidemiology, 43, 667-672.
Al-Kandari, F., Vidal, V. L., & Thomas, D. (2008). Health-promoting lifestyle and body mass index among college of nursing students in Kuwait: A correlational study. Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 10, 43-50.
Boslaugh, S., & Watters, P. A. (2008). Statistics in a nutshell: A desk tip quick reference. Cambridge, O’Reilly Press pp. 358-359.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics using SPSS (3red) London; Sage publication p. 58.
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112 (10, 155-159).
Erens, B., Primatesta, P., Prior, G. (2001). Health survey for England 1999: the health ofminority ethnic groups. London: The Stationery office.
EL Ansari, W, Stock, C., & Mikola Jczyk, T. R. (2012). Relationships between foodconsumption and living arrangements among university students in four European countries:A cross-sectional study. Nutritional Journal 11:28.
World Federation for Mental Health. (2009). Depression and HIV AIDS: An Overview of the International Research. Accessed on February, 10, 2010, fromhttp://www.wfmhafriainitatire.org.
WHO. (2005). Promoting mental health. World Health Organizations report, P. 27. Retrievedon October, 13, 2014, from http: www.who.int.
DeRoma, U. M., Leach, J. B., &Leverett, J. P. (2009). The relationship between depression and college academic performance. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 11, 49-4.
Lindsey, B. J., &Fabiano, P. S. C. (2009). The prevalence and correlates of depression among collegestudents. College Student Journal, 43(4).
Dahlin, M., Joneborg, N., & Runeson, B. (2005). Stress and depression among medical students: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Medical Education, 39, 594-604.
Aniebue, P., & Onyema, G. (2008). Prevalence of depressive symptoms among Nigerianmedical undergraduates. Royal Society of Medicine press, 38 (3), 157-158.
Zawawi, J. A., &Hamaideh, S. H. (2009). Depressive symptoms and their correlates with locus of control and satisfaction with life among Jordanian college students. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, PP. 71-103.
Dusselier, l., Dunn, B., Wang, Y., Shelley, M. C., & Whalen, D. F. (2005). Personal, health, academic and environmental predictors of stress for residence hall students. Journal ofAmerican Collage Health.54(l).
Wilkosz, M. E., Cohem, J. L., Wolf, K. N., Kennedy, Kennedy, C., & Rankin, S. (2011). Body dissatisfaction in California adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 23(2), 101-109.
WHO. (2004). The WHO cross-national study of health behaviour in school-age childrenfrom 35 countries: Findings from 2001-2002. Journal of School Health, 74: 204-206.
Jones, L. R., Fries, E., & Danish, S. J. (2007). Gender & ethnic differences in body imageand opposite sex figure preferences of rural adolescents. Journal of Body Image, 4, 103-108.
Woodruff, S. J., Hanning, R. M., Lambraki, I., Storey, K. E., & McCargar, L. (2008). HealthyEating index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight lossdieting, and meal skipping. Journal of Body Image, 5, 404-08.
Cassidy, C. M. (1991). The good body: When big is better. Journal of Medical Anthropology,13, 181-213.
Brink, P. J (1989). The fattening room among the Annang of Nigeria. Journal of Medical Anthropology, 12,131-143.
Sobal, J., & Stunkard, A. J. (1989). Socioeconomic status and obesity: A review of the literature. Journal of Psychological Bulletin, 105(2), 260-275.
Neff, L. J., Sargent, R. G., McKeown, R. E., Jackson, K. L., & Valois, R. F. (1997). Black-White differences in body size perceptions and weight management practices amongadolescent females. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20, 459-465.
Cogan, J., Bhalla, S., Sefa-Dedeh. G., & A., Rothblum, E. D. (1996). A comparison study of United States and African students on perceptions of obesity and thinness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27(1), 98-113.
O’Dea, J. (1999). Cross-cultural, body weight and gender differences in the body sizeperceptions and body ideas of university students. Journal of Nutrition and Diet 55; 144-150.
Sarason. I. G., Sarason, B. R., Shearin, E. N., & Pierce, G. (1987). A brief measure of socialsupport: Practical and theoretical implication. Journal of social and personal Relationships,4, 497-510.
Abolfotouh, M. A. Bassiouni, F. A., Mounir, G. M., & Fayyad, R. C. (2007). Health-related lifestyles and risk behaviours among students living in Alexandria university hostels inEgypt. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 13(2).
Allgower, A., Wardle, J., & Steptoe, A. (2001). Depressive symptoms, social support, andpersonal health behaviours in Young men and women. Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 223-227.
Edwards, K. J., Herhberger, P. J., Russell, R. K., & Market, R. J. (2001). Stress, negativesocial exchange, and health symptoms in university students. Journal of American CollegeHealth. (50)2.
Robson, C. (1995). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practictionerresearchers. Oxford, Blackwell, p.471.
National University Commission (NUC). (2010). Approved universities in Nigeria.
EL-Gilang, A., Amr, M., Awadalla, N., & EL-Khawaga, G. (2008). Stress among medicaland law students in Mansoura, Egypt. Middle East Journal of Family Medicine, 6 (9).
Omigbodum, O. O., Onibokun, A. C, Yusuf B. O., Odukogbe, A. A., & Omigbodun, A. O. (2004). Stressors and counselling needs of undergraduate Nursing students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Nursing Education 43(9).
Salami, S. O., (2010). Occupational stress and well – being: Emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, coping, negative affectivity and social support as moderators. Journal ofInternational Social Research 3 (12).
Pinninti, N. R, Madison, H, Musser, E., & Rissmiller, D. (2003). MINI InternationalNeuropsychiatric Schedule: Clinical utility and patient acceptance. Journal of EuropeanPsychiatry, 361-364.
Abdel-Khalek, A., & AL Ansari, w. (2004). Gender differences in anxiety amongundergraduates from ten Arab countries. Journal of social Behaviour and Personality, 32(7),649-656.
Stock, C., Mikolajczyk, R. T., Bilir, N., Petkeviciene, J., Naydenova V., Dudziak, U., Marin-Fernandez., B., & EL Ansari, W., (2007) Gender differences in students’ health complaints: A survey in seven countries. Journal of public Health.
Wardle, J., Steptoe, A., Gulis, G., Sek, H., Todorova, I., Vogele, C. & Ziarko, M. (2004). Depression perceived control, and life satisfaction in university students from central-Eastern and western Europe. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 11(1), 27-36.
Olibie, E. I, Eziuzo, G. O, Enueme, C. K. (2013). Inequalities in Nigerian education sector: Some perspectives for improvement. Journal of Research & Methods in Education 3 (6).07-14.
Anugwom, E. E. (2000). Ethnic conflict and democracy in Nigeria: the marginalizationquestion. Journal of social development in Africa, 15(1)61-78.
Okonkwo, R. (2007). Corruption in Nigeria: A Historical perspective (1947-2002). In African Unchained. Retrieved on September, 10, 2007, from http://africaunchained.blogspot.com/2007/09/corruption-in-nigeria-historical.html.
Ogbeidi, M. M. (2012). Political leadership and corruption in Nigeria since 1960: A socio-economic Analysis. Journal of Nigeria studies. 1 (2).
Tignor, L. R. (1993). ‘‘Political corruption in Nigeria before independence,’’ The Journal ofmodern African studies, 31 (2).
Kalu, k. A. (1996). Political economic in Nigeria. The military, ethnic politics anddevelopment. International Journal of politics, culture, and society, 10(2).
Adebayo, D. O., Summola, A. M., & Udegbe, I. B. (2008). Subjective wellbeing, work-school conflict and proactive coping among Nigerian non-traditional students. Career Development International, 13,440-455.