Effect of Storage and Exposure to Sunlight on the Quality of Sachet Water Sold in Ibadan Metropolis
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 5, Issue 4, July 2017, Pages: 321-328
Received: Apr. 18, 2017; Accepted: May 8, 2017; Published: Jul. 3, 2017
Views 1822      Downloads 62
Authors
Ikpeazu Joy Chinenye, Environmental Health Department, Abia State College of Health and Management Technology, Aba, Nigeria
Oluwayiose Oladele Amos, Environmental Health Sciences Department, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Inadequate pipe borne water supply has led to rapid proliferation of sachet water companies in Nigeria. Recently, another dimension added to public health concerns on water quality is the storage and handling of sachet water by distributors and vendors. This study assessed the effect of storage and exposure to sunlight on the quality of sachet water in Ibadan, Nigeria. An experimental design was adopted. Two hundred sachets of water from ten brands were collected upon production from various factories. Water samples were divided into two groups: storage indoor (room temperature) and storage with exposure to sunlight for four weeks. Physicochemical and bacteriological analyses were carried out on the sachet water samples at baseline and after three days and weeks one to four of storage. The data obtained were analysed using SPSS (20.0). The bacteria isolated were E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia and P.vulgaris. Total bacterial counts decreased in the order: 0 to 1.5x104cfu/100 mL (day 3) > 0 to 9.5x 102 cfu/100 mL (day 7) upon exposure to sunlight, however, there was continuous increase of bacteria count from day seven. Bacteria counts of water stored indoor increased throughout the study period. E. coli was present in all water samples by day 21. There was a significant difference in nitrite concentration between the two storage conditions across study period. This study revealed that storage duration and exposure conditions affect the quality of sachet water for drinking. Quality improvement of sachet water through exposure to sunlight was most effective on third day of exposure, while the maximum time of effectiveness was one week, beyond which the quality deteriorates fast irrespective of the storage condition. Hence, prolonged water storage beyond one week before drinking is discouraged.
Keywords
Water Quality, Sachet Water, Storage, Nitrite, E. coli
To cite this article
Ikpeazu Joy Chinenye, Oluwayiose Oladele Amos, Effect of Storage and Exposure to Sunlight on the Quality of Sachet Water Sold in Ibadan Metropolis, Science Journal of Public Health. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2017, pp. 321-328. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.20170504.17
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Ezeugwunne I. P., Agbakoba N. R., Nnamah N. K., Anhalu I. C. (2009). The prevalence Bacteria in Packaged Sachet Water Sold in Nnewi, South East, Nigeria. World Journal of Dairy and Food Science. 4 (10):19-21.
[2]
Itama E., Olaseha I. O., Sridhar M. K. C. (2006). Springs as supplementary potable water supplies for inner city populations: A Study from Ibadan. Urban Water J. 3(4):215-223.
[3]
Oladipo I. C., Onyenika I. C., Adebiyi A. O. (2009) Microbial analysis of some vended sachet water in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science. 3(12):406–412.
[4]
Omalu C. J., Eze G. C., Olayemi I. K., Gbesi S., Adeniran L. A., Ayanwale A. V., Mohammed, A. Z., Chukwuemeka V. (2010). “Contamination of Sachet Water in Nigeria: Assessment and Health Impact,” The Online Journal of Health and Allied Sciences. 9 4:15.
[5]
Stoler, J., J. R. Weeks and G. Fink, 2012. Sachet drinking water in Ghana's Accra-Tema metropolitan area: Past, present and future. J. Water Sanitation Hygiene Dev.: J. Int. Water Assoc., 2: 223-240.
[6]
Consumer Affairs Movement of Nigeria, CAMON (2007). NAFDAC to ban-97% contaminated. Consumer Link. 1:1. "CIA - The world factbook". Central Intelligence Agency.
[7]
Okpako E. C., Osuagwu A. N., Duke A. E., Ntui V. O. (2008). Prevalence and Significance Of Fungi in Sachet and Borehole Drinking Water in Calabar Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 3(2) online http://www.academicjournals.org/ajm
[8]
Bennie J. (2007). Food and Drug Board raises alarm over sachet water handling: Ghanaian Chronicle online. Assessed on the 24th of July 2010 from http://news2/285956/1/modernghana.com/food-and-drugs-board-raisesalarmover- handling-of-,html
[9]
Ejima S. O. (2005). Environment and Health Hazards. Implication on students in colleges of education in Ankpa, Kogi State. Teacher Education Journal. 13 (2) 86-91.
[10]
Akinde S. B., Nwachukwu M. I., Adindu S, Ogamba A. S. (2011). Storage Effects on the Quality of Sachet Water Produced within Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 3: 157–164.
[11]
APHA (1998). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation. United Book Press, Inc., USA.
[12]
Montgomery H. A. C., Dymock J. E. (1961). The determination of nitrite in water. Analyst. 86, 414-416.
[13]
Jimoh O. T., Ndamitso M. M., Idris S., Likita M. B., Ajai A. I., Bala A. A. (2013). Physico-chemical and Escherichia coli assessment of selected sachet water produced in some areas of Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering. 5(3):134-140
[14]
World Health Organisation, 2011. Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water. WHO/SDE/WSH/07.01/16/Rev/1NRDC, (2003). Common tap water contaminants: Health effects, treatment and recommendations. In: What’s on tap? Grading drinking water in U.S.
[15]
Aroh K. N., Eze E. M., Ukaji D., Wachuku C. K, Gobo A. E., Abbe S. D., Teme S. C. and Igoni A. H., 2013. Health and environmental components of sachet water consumption and trade in Aba and Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science. 4(2):13-22,
[16]
Sunday B. A., Michael I. N., Adindu S. O. (2011). Storage Effects on the Quality of Sachet water Produced within Port Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences. 4(3):157-164.
[17]
Abudu B. D., Samuel J. C., Mark O. K. (2013). Effect of storage on the quality of sachet-vended water in the tamale metropolis. Ghana journal of environmental protection. 4: 629-637. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2013.46072 http://www.scirp.org/journal/jep
[18]
World Health Organisation, (2008). Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: Incorporating 1st and 2nd Addenda, 3rd Edition, Vol. 1, Recommendations.
[19]
USEPA, (2012). Water: monitoring and assessment. Office of water, United States environmental protection agency, Washington DC. http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/vms5s.cfm
[20]
Cruickshank R. (1968). Medical Microbiology, a guide to the Laboratory Diagnosis and control of Infection.E and S Living Stone Ltd. London, England.; 963-978.
[21]
Onojah P. K., Odin E. M., Ochala A. U. (2013). Physicochemical studies and bacteriological assay of Sachet Water samples marketed in Kogi state University Compound, Anyigba. International Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 3 4: 146-150
[22]
Guilot E., Lecters H. (1993). Biological Specificity of Bottled Mineral Water. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 74: 345-352.
[23]
Mberekpe P., Eze N. (2014). Effects of Preservation on the Quality of Sachet Water Consumed by Households in Nsukka Zone. The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education. 6: 7.
[24]
Addo, M. G., Woods, C. A., Andoh L. A., and Obiri-Danso, K. 2016. Effect of Varying Storage Temperatures on the Microbiological Quality of Street Sold Water in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Research Journal of Microbiology, 11: 56-63.
[25]
Dibua U. E., Esimone C. O., Ndianefo P. C. (2007). Microbiological and Physical Characteristics of sachet water samples marketed in Nsukka campus of the University of Nigeria. Bio – Research a publication of the Faculty of Biological Sciences. 5 (1): 189-193.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186