Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 7, Issue 6, November 2019, Pages: 206-213
Received: May 21, 2019;
Accepted: Nov. 8, 2019;
Published: Nov. 19, 2019
Views 104 Downloads 43
Sam Mwachibua Mwadzombo, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya
Lenny Mwagandi Chimbevo, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Technical University of Mombasa, Mombasa, Kenya
Paul Sifuna Oshule, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya
Suliman Essuman, Department of Medical Microbiology, Mount Kenya University, Thika, Kenya
Francis Muchiri Wambura, Department of Health Education and Promotion, Kenya Medical Training College, Nyahururu, Kenya
In tropical areas, absence or poor growth of potatoes and grains makes cassava a common food. However, presence of goitrogenic compounds make cassava unfit for human consumption hindering its contribution to curb food security. The study is aimed at providing evidence based relationship between goitre prevalence and cassava consumption in Kilifi County. A longitudinal retrospective quantitative study design was conducted in six randomly selected hospitals (Wananchi Hospital, Swiss Cottage Hospital, Watamu Hospital, Malindi District Hospital, Mariakani Sub-County Hospital, Kilifi County Referral Hospital). Secondary data from Hospital records were used to identify goitre patients where questionnaires were administered and respondent’s response scored. Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) was used to summarize data and determine correlations. A total of 673503 patients attended hospitals, 232 (0.034%) had goitre, 99 (42.67%) were reached; 7 (7.07%) and 92 (92.93%) were none consumers and consumers of cassava respectively. Raw cassava consumption is a high risk factor (62%) compared to cooked (21.7%), milled (7.6%), roasted (5.4%) and fried (3.3%) forms of cassava. Adult women (52.2%), pregnant women (32.6%) and children of both sex (10.9%) were more susceptible than adult males (4.3%). 89.20% patients consumed both leaves and roots, 6.4% roots and 5.4% leaves. Flesh, central part and both flesh and central part of root consumed by 5%, 7% and 87% patients respectively. Four species of cassava were grown and consumed as follows 79.30% Chibandameno (Manihot esculenta mantenha), 10.8% Kaleso (Manihot esculenta paraibu) 6.5% Original (Manihot esculenta amanolinha) and 3.4% Mgrikacha (Manihot esculenta parmada). Cassava is consumed due to culture (13%), medicine (5.4%), food (18.4%), sexual drive booster (9.8%) and making other foods (53.4%). It can be concluded cassava consumption may induce goitre. The study recommends chemical analysis of goitrogenic compounds in blood, urine, various parts and methods of preparation of different species of cassava.
Sam Mwachibua Mwadzombo,
Lenny Mwagandi Chimbevo,
Paul Sifuna Oshule,
Francis Muchiri Wambura,
A Relationship Between Goitre Prevalence and Cassava (Manihot esculenta. Crantz) Consumption in Kilifi County, Coast Province of Kenya, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 7, No. 6,
2019, pp. 206-213.
Felig. P. Frohman H. and Lawrence A. Goitre, Endocrinology and Metabolism. McGraw Hill Professional. 2001.
Madukosiri CH. and Ikale E. Iodine content in diet and urine of people in Imiringi and Otuasega communities in Ogbia LGA Bayelsa. Electronic Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 2011: 10 (5), 2216-2221.
Nartey F. Biosynthesis of cyanogenic glucosides in cassava (Manihot spp.), Chronic cassava toxicity: proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop, London, England. 1973; 73-87.
Delange FM. Velden V. and Ermans A. Evidence of an antithyroid action of cassava in man and in animals, Chronic cassava toxicity of proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop in London, England. 1973: 147-151.
Butler GW. Reay PF. and Tapper BA. Physiological and genetic aspects of cyanogenesis in cassava and other plants. Chronic cassava toxicity of proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop, London, England. 1973: 65-71.
Onyenwoke CA. and Simonyan KJ. Cassava post-harvest processing and storage in Nigeria: A review, African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014: 9 (53), 3853-3863.
WHO, UNICEF, ICCIDD. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination. A guide for Programme Managers, 2nd ed. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2001: 740.
Middlesworth L. and Jones SL. Endocrinology, African journal of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. 2006: 87-99.
Madukosiri CH. and Adoga GI. Elemental status of pregnant and lactating women in Bassa LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2011: 10 (5) 401 404.
Schott M. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies in Graves’s disease, A review on the role of anti-TSHR autoantibodies in Graves’s disease, and methods for detecting these antibodies. 2005: 16: 243.
Stassi G, and De Maria R, Autoimmune thyroid disease: new models of cell death in autoimmunity. Nat Rev Immunol, A review on autoimmune thyroid disorders, particularly the pathogenesis of Hashimoto and other thyroiditis. 2002: 2: 195.
OECD. Consensus Document on Compositional Considerations for New Varieties of CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta Crantz): Key Food and Feed Nutrients, Anti-nutrients, Toxicants and Allergens. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2009.
Montagnac JA. Davis CR. and Tanumihardjo SA. Nutritional Value of Cassava for Use as a Staple Food and Recent Advances for Improvement. Institute of Food Technologists: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2009: 8: 181-194.
Nweke FI. Poulson R. and Strauss J. Cassava production trends in Africa. In Tropical Root Crops in a Developing Economy. Proceedings of the 9th Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops; 20th-26th October, 1994, Accra, Ghana. 311-321.
Chukwuji CO. Inoni OE. and Ike PC. Determinants of technical efficiency in gari processing in Delta state Nigeria. Journal of Central European Agriculture. 2007: 8 (3): 327-336.
Siritunga D. and Sayre R. Engineering cyanogen synthesis and turnover in cassava, The Ohio state university Columbus OH 43210. 2004.
Cock JH. Cyanide toxicity in relation to the cassava research program of CIAT in Colombia, Chronic cassava toxicity in proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop in London, England. 1973: 37-48.
Nestel B. Current utilization and future potential for cassava. In Chronic cassava toxicity: proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop, London, England. 1973: 11-26.
Haque MR. and Bradbury JH. Simple Method for Determination of Thiocyanate in Urine. Clinical Chemistry. 1999: 45 (9) 1459–1464.
Ermans AM. Role of a dietary goitrogen in the etiology of endemic goiter on Idjw Island. Am J Clin Nutr. 1971. 24: 1354–1360.
Ermans AM. Vis H. Stanbury JB. Endemic cretinism in Idjwi Island (Kivu Lake, Republic of Congo). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1972: 34: 1059–1066.
Iteke FB, Ermans AM. Nutritional Factors Involved in the Goitrogenic Action of Cassava. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. 1982.
Mezgebu Y. Prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorder among children 6–12 years of age in Shebe Senbo District, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2012: 22 (3): 199–201.
Tebeb HN. Goitre problems in Ethiopia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1993: 57 (2): 315S–6S.
Ogbera AO. Fasanmade O. Adediran O. Pattern of thyroid disorders in the South Western region of Nigeria. Ethn Dis. 2007; 17: 327–30.
Bradbury JH. (2006). Simple wetting method to reduce cyanogens content of cassava flour. J. Food Compos. Anal. 19: 388-393.
Taylor N. Chavarriaga P. Raemakers K. Siritunga D. and Peng Z. “Development and Application of Transgenic technologies in Cassava”, Plant Molecular Biology. 2004: 56: 671-688.
Balagopalan C. Padmaja G. Nanda SK. Moorthy SN. Cassava in Food, Feed and Industry; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA. 1988.
Nweke IF. Spencer DSC. and Lyman KJ. The cassava transformation. Africa best-kept secret. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing. 2002.
Wobeto C. Corrêa AD. de Abreu CMP. dos Santos CD. and Pereira HV. “Antinutrients in the Cassava (Manhihot esculenta Crantz) Leaf Powder at Three Ages of the Plant”, Ciênc. Technol. Alilment. Campinas. 2007: 1: 108-112.
Ketiku, AO. and Oyenuga, VA. Preliminary report on the carbohydrate constituents of cassava roots and yam tubers. Niger. J. Sci. 1970: 4 (1): 25-30.
Bruun G. The cyanogenic character of cassava (Manihot esculenta). 1973.
Alvarez-Pedrerol M. Guxens M. Mendez M. Canet Y. Martorell R. Espada M. and Sunyer J. Iodine levels and thyroid hormones in healthy pregnant women and birth weight of their offspring. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2009: 160 (3): 423-429.
Andersson M. De Benoist BD. Bruno K. Darnton-Hill B. Ian Y. Delange S. François M. Iodine deficiency in Europe: a continuing public health problem M. Andersson (Ed.) Iodine Deficiency Diseases Europe. 2007.
Andersson M. Takkouche B. Egli I. and Benoist BD. The WHO Global Database on iodine deficiency disorders: the importance of monitoring iodine nutrition. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. 2003: 47 (4): 162-166.
Hetzel B. The Story of Iodine Deficiency: An International Challenge in Nutrition. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. 1989.
KNBS-SID. Exploring Kenya’s inequality, pulling apart or pooling together. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) and the Society for International Development (SID). 2013.
Berhanu N. Wolde-Michael K. and Bezabih M. Endemic goiter in school children in Southwestern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev. 2004: 18.
Kulwa M. Kamuzora K. and Leo G. Urinary iodine concentration and availability of iodated salt in school children in goiter endemic district of Tanzania. East Afr Med J. 2006: 83.
Madukosiri CH. A pilot study on the aetiology of goitre in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. American journal of food and nutrition. 2011: doi: 10.5251/ajfn.2011.1.4.193.200.
Osuntokun BO. Cassava diet, Chronic cyanide intoxication and neuropathy in Nigerian Africans. World rev Nutr. Diet. 1981: 36: 141-173.
Altamir BS. Soto-Blanco B. Guerra JL. Edna TK. Imura RI. Silvana LG. Does prolonged exposure to thiocyanide toxicity promote hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity? Toxicology. 2002: 174: 87-95.
Tulsawani RK. Debnath M. Pant SC. Kumar OM. Prakash AO. Viyayaraghavan R. Bhattacharya. Effects of sub-acute oral cyanide administration in rats: Protective efficacy of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2005: 156, 1: 12.
Fowke JH. Fahey JW. Stephenson KK. and Hebert. R. Using Isothiocyanate excretion as a biological marker of Brassic vegetable consumption in epidemiological studies.: Evaluating the sources of variability. Public Health Nutriton. 2001: 4 (3): 837-46.
Montgomery RD. Cyanogens. In: Liener IE, (Ed). Toxic constituents of plant foodstuffs. Academic Press, New York. 1980: 143-160.
Cardoso AP. Ernesto M. Cliff J. Egan SV. Bradbury JH. Cyanogenic potential of cassava flour: field trial in Mozambique of a simple kit. Intl. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1998: 49: 93-99.
Cardoso AP. Ernesto M. Nicala D. Combination of cassava flour cyanide and urinary thiocyanide measurements of school children in Mozambique. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2004: 55: 183-190.
Dawit-Shawel SH. Carl K. Lachat G. Martin E. Kimanya E. and Patrick K. Post-production Losses in Iodine Concentration of Salt Hamper the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders: A Case Study in Northern Ethiopia. J. Health. Popul. Nutr. 2010: 28 (3), 238-244.