Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from HIV Positive Patients in Imo State, Nigeria
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 3, Issue 5-1, September 2015, Pages: 1-7
Received: May 21, 2015; Accepted: Jun. 26, 2015; Published: Sep. 2, 2015
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Authors
Emeka-Nwabunnia , Ijeoma, Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Chiegboka, Nneamaka Alice, Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Udensi, Ugochi Justina, Department of Biotechnology, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria
Nwaokorie, Francisca Obigaeri, Division of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Nigeria Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria
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Abstract
Vancomycin continues to be an important antimicrobial agent for treating infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains that are resistant to oxacillin (MRSA) and other antimicrobial agents. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) isolates were obtained from HIV-positive patients already on HAART treatment but were not admitted in the hospital. Species identification was confirmed by standard biochemical tests and PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Vancomycin resistance was determined using the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method and confirmed by Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) vancomycin screen agar plate containing 6µg/ml vancomycin. A total of 8 VRSA were identified from the 59 isolates obtained from the patients. Five out of the eight VRSA isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics tested. However, one unusual strain which was resistant to all the antimicrobial agents tested contained no plasmid, Mec A gene and PVL toxin gene. One VRSA isolate contained a large plasmid (~21.2 kb) and four small plasmids of ~5, 2.5, 1.2 and 0.8 kb respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin susceptibility was >15 µg/ml at disk potency of 30µg. The reduced susceptibility of S. aureus strains to vancomycin leaves clinicians with relatively few therapeutic options for treating these infections and therefore emphasizes the importance of prudent use of antibiotics and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent their transmissions.
Keywords
Antibiotic Susceptibility, VRSA, MRSA, HIV Positive Patients, Staphylococcus aureus, Plasmid Profile, MecA Gene, Haemolytic Activities
To cite this article
Emeka-Nwabunnia , Ijeoma, Chiegboka, Nneamaka Alice, Udensi, Ugochi Justina, Nwaokorie, Francisca Obigaeri, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from HIV Positive Patients in Imo State, Nigeria, Science Journal of Public Health. Special Issue:Who Is Afraid of the Microbes. Vol. 3, No. 5-1, 2015, pp. 1-7. doi: 10.11648/j.sjph.s.2015030501.11
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