Unhygienic Food Handling as a Source of Parasites and Pathogenic Bacteria in Dessie Town, North Eastern Ethiopia
Science Journal of Public Health
Volume 7, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages: 98-103
Received: May 13, 2019;
Accepted: Jun. 23, 2019;
Published: Jul. 8, 2019
Views 100 Downloads 25
Brhanu Teka, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Assefa Mulu, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Muluneh Ademe, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background: Food handlers (individuals engaged in food preparation, transport and provision) are implicated in the transmission of foodborne diseases if appropriate hygienic practices are not maintained. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers of Dessie town, Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among asymptomatic food handlers. Stool microscopy and culture was performed on 135 food handlers to determine intestinal parasites and enteric bacterial pathogens. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The majority of the food handlers were females (n=112; 83%), 18-27 years old (n= 95; 70.4%), with grade 9-12 education (n=56; 41.5%) and single in marital status (n= 87; 64.4%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites and enteric bacterial pathogens were 10.4% and 13.3%, respectively. Entaemoeba histolytica/E. dispar, (n=8; 5.9%) and Shigella species (n= 7; 5.2%) were the predominant parasitic and bacterial isolates respectively. Six (85.7%) of the Shigella isolates showed resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline while the single isolated Pseudomonas species showed resistance to all tested antimicrobials. Conclusion: Potentially contagious enteric bacterial pathogens and intestinal parasites were identified from food handlers who were presumed healthy. Hence, periodic screening of food handlers, and training on food handling and hand hygiene practices for food handlers is highly needed.
Unhygienic Food Handling as a Source of Parasites and Pathogenic Bacteria in Dessie Town, North Eastern Ethiopia, Science Journal of Public Health.
Vol. 7, No. 3,
2019, pp. 98-103.
Food Sanitation Rules. 2012. 1-123. ncphd.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/2012-Food-Rules.pdf.
WHO. Report on global burden of foodborne disease. 2015. http://www.ianphi.org/news/2015/foodborneillness.html. Accessed 16, June 2017.
Chukuezi, C. O. (2010). Food safety and hygienic practice of street food vendors in Owern, Nigeria. Studies in Sociology of Science. 1 (1): 50-57.
Ifeadike CO, Ironkwe OC, Adogu PO, Nnebue CC. Assessment of the food hygiene practices of food handlers in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria. Trop. J. Med. Res. 2014; 17: 10-15. doi: 10.4103/1119-0388.130175.
Agustina R, Sari TP, Satroamidjojo S, Bovee-Oudenhoven IM, Feskens EJ, Kok FJ. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas. BMC Public Health. 2013: 13: 977. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-977.
Kibret M, Abera B. The Sanitary Conditions of Food Service Establishments and Food Safety Knowledge and Practices of Food Handlers in Bahir Dar Town. Ethiop. J. Health. Sci. 2012; 22 (1): 27–35.
Addis M, Sisay D. A Review on Major Food Borne Bacterial Illnesses. Trop. Dis. 2015; 3 (4): 1-7. doi: 10.4176/2329891X.1000176.
Malhotra R, Lal P, Prakash SK, Daga MK, Kishore J. Study of hand hygiene and enteroparasite infestation among food handlers working in a medical college of North India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2006; 49: 296–301.
Barrabeig I RA, Buesa J, Bartolome R, Pinto R, Prellezo H, Dominguez A. BMC Infect Dis 2010 Sep 15; doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-269; 10 (269): 1471-2334-10-269.
DemissieT Andualem, Yehuala F Moges, Fetene D Muluye, Gudeta G Ayalew. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella and Salmonella Species among patients with diarrhea attending Gondar town health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia. Science Journal of Public Health. 2014; 2 (5): 469-75.
CDC. The Food Production Chain - How Food Gets Contaminated. 2015. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/outbreaks/investigating.../production-chain.html
Jones TF, Pavlin BI, LaFleur BJ, Ingram LA, Schaffner W. Restaurant Inspection Scores and Foodborne Disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2004; 10 (4): 688-692. doi: 10.3201/eid1004.030343.
Akabanda F, Hlortsi EH, Owusu-Kwarteng J. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17 (40): 1-9. Doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3986-9.
Cheesbrough M. Medical laboratory manual for tropical countries. 1 (2). Cambridge university press. 2009. 1-454.
Aklilu A, Kahase D, Dessalegn M, Tarekegn N, Gebremichael S, Zenebe S, Desta K, Mulugeta G, Mamuye Y, Mama M. (2015). Prevalence of intestinal parasites, salmonella and shigella among apparently health food handlers of Addis Ababa University student’s cafeteria, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes. 8: 17; 1-6.
Abera B, Biadegelgen F, Bezabih B. (2010). Prevalence of salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food handlers in Bahir Dar town. Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev; 24 (1): 47–50.
Jejaw A, Zeynudin A, Zemene E, Belay T. (2014) Status of intestinal parasitic infections among residents of Jimma Town, Ethiopia. BMC Research Notes, 7: 502. 1-6.
Alemu A, Shiferaw Y, Getnet G, Yalew A, Addis Z. (2011). Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 661-665.
Mama M, Alemu G, (2016). Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16: 105.
Kamaua P, Aloo-Obudho P, Kabiru E, Ombacho K, Langat B, Mucheru O, Ireri L. (2012). Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in certified food-handlers working in food establishments in the City of Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Biomedical Research. 26 (2): 84-89.
Worku T, Jejaw A, Kannan S, Wondafrash B. (2015) Isolation and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Patterns of Enteric Bacterial Pathogens from Asymptomatic Food Handlers, Jimma, Ethiopia. American Journal of Health Research. 3: 6. 399-406.
Teshale Worku, Ayalew Jejaw, Subbaram Kannan, Beyene Wondafrash. Isolation and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Patterns of Enteric Bacterial Pathogens from Asymptomatic Food Handlers, Jimma, Ethiopia. American Journal of Health Research. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 399-406. doi: 10.11648/j.ajhr.20150306.24.
Dagnew M, Tiruneh M, Moges F, Gizachew M (2013) Bacterial Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern among Food Handlers at Gondar University Cafeteria, Northwest Ethiopia. J Infect Dis Ther 1: 105. doi: 10.4172/jidt.1000105.