American Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 106-108
Received: Nov. 1, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 11, 2014;
Published: Nov. 20, 2014
Views 2937 Downloads 226
Belayneh Regasa, Medical Microbiology Department, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia
Background: HIV/AIDS is one of the most challenging health crises facing the world today. The availability of excellent HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) tests does not automatically guarantee reliable result. Many steps are involved between specimen collections to the moment when reported to physician and at each step something may go wrong. Measures to control the quality of result in HIV diagnostic laboratories are extremely important, because of the consequence of either false positive or false negative results are huge. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted to assess quality assurance program of HIV testing in Addis Ababa Hospitals and Clinics, Ethiopia from May to October 2012. A well designed and structured questionnaire, Checklist and onsite observation were used to collect data. Data was processed and analyzed with SPSS version16.0. Results: Out of 20 assessed hospitals and clinics cases, 3(14%) laboratory personnel’s who conduct HIV testing were found to have no training in HIV testing. Some laboratories 2 (10%) do not follow HIV testing algorithm and also 2 (10%) laboratory personnel’s do not know what to do in case of indeterminate result. HIV testing methods used were Rapid/ simple 20(100%), ELISA 13 (65%), and Western blot 1(5%). All laboratories use controls that are supplied with kit but 2 (10%) laboratories use external control (pooled sera) additionally. Seventeen (85%) uses manual (guidelines) supplied with kits but none of them uses SOPs (Standard operating procedures). There was poor participation in EQA (External Quality Assessment) program (50%). Conclusion: This study showed that there is lack of qualified human resources, not following HIV testing algorithm and poor participation in External quality assessment program. Therefore having a good quality assurance program and participation in external quality assessment scheme is indispensable. In addition, provision of refreshment training for laboratory personnel’s’ who conduct HIV testing and involving them in planning and management will increase the quality of HIV testing.
Assessment of Quality Assurance Program of HIV Testing in Ethiopia, American Journal of Internal Medicine.
Vol. 2, No. 6,
2014, pp. 106-108.
Cock KM, Marum E. A sero status- based approach to HIV/AIDS prevention and care in Africa. Lancet. 2003; 362:1847-1848.
Sabati K. HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: past, present and future. Horn Africa journal of AIDS, 2004; I (II): 70-71.
Peter B, Whit tall T, Babaahmady K, Vaughan R, Lehner T, et al. Effect of heterosexual intercourse on mucosal alloimmunization and resistance to HIV-1 infection. Lancet. 2004; 362:518.
Fontanet A, Woldemichael T. The Ethiopia Netherlands AIDS research project (ENARP): description and major findings after 4 years of activities, Ethiop Med J. 1999; 37(1);19.
Van Dyck E, Meheus AZ, Piot P, et al. Laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases, WHO, Geneva, 1999:86-95.
Goldsby R, Kindt TJ, Osborne BA, Kuby J, et al. Immunology, 5th ed. New york, W.H.Freeman and company, 2003
Contantine N, Collahan JD, Watts DM, et al. Retroviral testing: essential for quality control and lab diagnosis, 2nd ed. CRC press, inc. bola Raton, USA, 1992
WHO/UNAIDS, Guide lines for organizing national external quality assessment scheme for HIV serological testing 1996:1-5
Tegbaru B, Melese H, Tamene W, et al. The status of HIV screening Laboratories in Ethiopia: achievement, problems encountered and possible solutions. Ethiop J Health develop. 2002;16 (2):209-215
Quality Assurance in HIV testing, blood safety and clinical Technology, Pune, India, 2003:24-28. Http://www.whosea.org
Meles H. Tegbaru B, Messele T, et al. Evaluation of rapid assays for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J. 2002, 40:27
WHO, operational characteristics of commercially available assays to determine Antibodies to HIV-1 and/ or HIV-2 in human sera, Geneva, January 1998 (Report 9/10. WHO/98.1)
World Health organization and United Nation joint program on HIV/AIDS. Revised recommendations for selection and use of HIV antibody tests, WHO weekly Epidemiology, 1997 (12);81-88