Gender Differences in Heart Failure: Findings from Italian Internal Medicine Wards
American Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2015, Pages: 55-66
Received: Feb. 19, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 5, 2015;
Published: Mar. 18, 2015
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Paolo Biagi, Medicina Interna Ospedale di Montepulciano, Montepulciano (SI), Italy
Valerio Verdiani, Medicina Interna Ospedale della Misericordia, Grosseto, Italy
Niccolo’ Napoli, Scuola di Specializzazione Chirurgia Generale Universitaria di Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Cristiana Seravalle, Medicina Interna Ospedale S Maria Nuova, Firenze, Italy
Luca Masotti, Medicina Interna Ospedale S Maria Nuova, Firenze, Italy
Irene Chiti, Medicina Interna Ospedale SS Cosma e Damiano di Pescia, Pescia (PT), Italy
Grazia Panigada, Medicina Interna Ospedale SS Cosma e Damiano di Pescia, Pescia (PT), Italy
Background and aim: Literature evidence shows that about one half of patients with heart failure (HF) are females. However, they are poorly represented in clinical trials. Therefore, this syndrome remains still understood and its burden underestimated in female sex. The aim of our study was to compare demography, etiology, clinical patterns, outcome, co-morbidity, disability and cognitive performance between females and males in a cohort of patients with HF. Materials and methods: We analyzed data of the Confine Study, a recently real world survey performed in Italian Internal Medicine wards. We compared clinical and instrumental characteristics between males and females. Results: Females with HF were significantly older than men. Hypertensive and valvular etiologies were significantly more prevalent in females whereas ischemic and dilatative were in males. Neither clinical aspects, with the exception of atrial fibrillation, nor echocardiographic aspects were more frequent in females. According to international guidelines on topic, both sexes received under-treatment, but this one was more evident in females. Females presented more frequently cognitive impairment and functional disability than males. Conclusion: Female sex is under-represented in clinical trials on HF. Our study may provide a contribute on this topic.
Gender Differences in Heart Failure: Findings from Italian Internal Medicine Wards, American Journal of Internal Medicine.
Vol. 3, No. 2,
2015, pp. 55-66.
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