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Clinical Characteristics of Mineral Bone Disease Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Southern, Nigeria
American Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 7, Issue 6, November 2019, Pages: 163-168
Received: Oct. 4, 2019; Accepted: Oct. 21, 2019; Published: Dec. 6, 2019
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Ndu Victor Onyebuchi, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Oko-Jaja Richard I., Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Emem-Chioma Pedro, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Wokoma Friday, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
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Mineral bone disease (MBD) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of CKD-MBD among adult patients with CKD in South-South, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty consecutive consenting chronic kidney disease patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study were recruited. Patients had a detailed clinical assessment, biochemical and radiological evaluations for CKD-MBD. Biochemical investigations included serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase while the radiological investigations included X-ray of the skull, spine, wrist and phalanges. The age range of the patients was 22-80 years, with a mean of 45.1 (±11.9) years. There were 90 males and 60 females with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Symptoms suggestive of CKD-MBD in the study population were bone pain and pruritus occuring in 34.9% and 12.0% of the CKD-MBD patients. Other symptoms presented by the patients included leg swelling in 126 (84%), frothiness of urine in 123 (82%), vomiting in 109 (72.7%), facial puffiness in 102 (68%), haematuria in 18 (12%) and chest pain in 73 (48.7%) of the patients. The mean values for serum PTH, serum calcium, serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and caxpo4 product among the CKD-MBD patients were 205.06±112.6 pg/ml, 2.56±0.73mmol/l, 1.63±0.63mmol/l, 109.26±65.57IU/L and 4.07±1.28mmol2/l2 respectively. There was hypercalcaemia in 44.6%, hypocalcaemia in 26.0%, hypophosphataemia in 12.0% and hyperphosphataemia in 29.3% of the patients. High alkaline phosphatase was observed in 36.0% while 8.7% had low alkaline phosphatase. There was high calcium x phosphate product in 34.0% of the patients. Radiological features in keeping with CKD-MBD was present in only 6% of those with CKD-MBD. Hypercalcemia is the major biochemical abnormalilty in patients with CKD-MBD in our environment.
CKD, MBD, Kidney Function, Calcium
To cite this article
Ndu Victor Onyebuchi, Oko-Jaja Richard I., Emem-Chioma Pedro, Wokoma Friday, Clinical Characteristics of Mineral Bone Disease Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Southern, Nigeria, American Journal of Internal Medicine. Vol. 7, No. 6, 2019, pp. 163-168. doi: 10.11648/j.ajim.20190706.15
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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