Clinical Characteristics of Mineral Bone Disease Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Southern, Nigeria
American Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 7, Issue 6, November 2019, Pages: 163-168
Received: Oct. 4, 2019;
Accepted: Oct. 21, 2019;
Published: Dec. 6, 2019
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Ndu Victor Onyebuchi, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Oko-Jaja Richard I., Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Emem-Chioma Pedro, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Wokoma Friday, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
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Mineral bone disease (MBD) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The objective of this study is to determine the characteristics of CKD-MBD among adult patients with CKD in South-South, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty consecutive consenting chronic kidney disease patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this study were recruited. Patients had a detailed clinical assessment, biochemical and radiological evaluations for CKD-MBD. Biochemical investigations included serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase while the radiological investigations included X-ray of the skull, spine, wrist and phalanges. The age range of the patients was 22-80 years, with a mean of 45.1 (±11.9) years. There were 90 males and 60 females with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Symptoms suggestive of CKD-MBD in the study population were bone pain and pruritus occuring in 34.9% and 12.0% of the CKD-MBD patients. Other symptoms presented by the patients included leg swelling in 126 (84%), frothiness of urine in 123 (82%), vomiting in 109 (72.7%), facial puffiness in 102 (68%), haematuria in 18 (12%) and chest pain in 73 (48.7%) of the patients. The mean values for serum PTH, serum calcium, serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase and caxpo4 product among the CKD-MBD patients were 205.06±112.6 pg/ml, 2.56±0.73mmol/l, 1.63±0.63mmol/l, 109.26±65.57IU/L and 4.07±1.28mmol2/l2 respectively. There was hypercalcaemia in 44.6%, hypocalcaemia in 26.0%, hypophosphataemia in 12.0% and hyperphosphataemia in 29.3% of the patients. High alkaline phosphatase was observed in 36.0% while 8.7% had low alkaline phosphatase. There was high calcium x phosphate product in 34.0% of the patients. Radiological features in keeping with CKD-MBD was present in only 6% of those with CKD-MBD. Hypercalcemia is the major biochemical abnormalilty in patients with CKD-MBD in our environment.
CKD, MBD, Kidney Function, Calcium
To cite this article
Ndu Victor Onyebuchi,
Oko-Jaja Richard I.,
Clinical Characteristics of Mineral Bone Disease Among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Southern, Nigeria, American Journal of Internal Medicine.
Vol. 7, No. 6,
2019, pp. 163-168.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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