Age- and Sex- Related Changes in Pineal Gland: A Morphological and Histological Study
American Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2015, Pages: 10-13
Received: May 22, 2015; Accepted: May 22, 2015; Published: Oct. 23, 2015
Views 4267      Downloads 76
Authors
K G Arunkumar, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Thrissur, India
A Amar Jayanthi, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Thrissur, India
C K Indira, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Thrissur, India
V K Girijamony, Department of Anatomy, Government Medical College, Thrissur, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Introduction: Pineal gland is believed to be an endocrine gland, melatonin being the principal hormone secreted by it. Updating any knowledge about the anatomy of pineal gland will expand our understanding of pineal physiology and pathophysiology and of the possible medical use of pineal compounds. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observatory study in pineal gland specimens collected from human subjects during autopsy after obtaining written informed consent from relatives. Subjects died of malignancy or head injury were excluded from the study. Morphological and histological analysis was done after preservation. Results: There were 90 adult specimens and 12 fetal specimens. Mean (SD) age, length of specimen, width, thickness (centimeters) and weight (grams) of specimen were 41.37  23.3, 0.79  0.17, 0.59  0.13, 0.35  0.10 and 0.08  0.04 respectively. The average number of pinealocytes and glial cells per field were 184.6 ± 29.41 and 7.20 ± 2.65 respectively. Incomplete lobules were seen in 52 adult specimens and complete in 38. Calcification was observed in 69 specimens. Changes of pattern of lobule from incomplete to complete and increase in calcification were found to be significantly correlated with advancing age. Conclusion: Increasing calcification and change in lobular pattern are observed as advancing age related changes in present study. Estimation of melatonin and data regarding factors affecting these changes may be done further to identify its pathophysiological significance.
Keywords
Pinealocyte, lobulation of pineal gland, calcification of pineal gland
To cite this article
K G Arunkumar, A Amar Jayanthi, C K Indira, V K Girijamony, Age- and Sex- Related Changes in Pineal Gland: A Morphological and Histological Study, American Journal of Internal Medicine. Special Issue: Toxicology. Vol. 3, No. 6-1, 2015, pp. 10-13. doi: 10.11648/j.ajim.s.2015030601.13
References
[1]
Russel J Reiter. The Pineal Gland. 1st ed. Volume 1. Anatomy and Biochemistry. CRC Press Inc., 1981: 3 - 19.
[2]
Anthony L Mescher. Chapter 20. Endocrine glands. Junqueira’s Basic Histology: Text and Atlas. 12th ed. McGraw Hill & Lange; 2010: 367- 370.
[3]
Barbara Young, James S Lowe, Alan Stevens, John V Heath. Chapter 17-Endocrine system. Wheater’s Functional Histology: A text and colour atlas. 5th ed. Elsevier, 2006: 344.
[4]
Kim E Barrett, Susan M Barman, Scott Boitano, Heddwen L Brooks. Chapter 15-Electrical activity of Brain sleep wake states and circadian rhythm. Section 3. Ganong’s review of Medical Physiology. 23rd ed. Tata McGraw Hill, 2010: 238, 239.
[5]
Chummy S Sinnatamby. Chapter 7-Central nervous system-Part one, Forebrain. Last’s anatomy Regional and applied: 11th ed. Churchill Livingstone, 2006: 48.
[6]
Lopez Munoz F, Molina J D, Rubio G, Alamo C. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders. J Clin Neurosci. 2011; Aug; 18 (8): 1028 – 1037.
[7]
Bertram G. Katzung, Susan B. Masters, Anthony J. Trevor. Chapter 64-Dietary supplements & Herbal medications. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 11th ed. Tata McGraw Hill, 2009: 1123-1124.
[8]
Koshy S & Vettivel. Melanin Pigments in Human Pineal Gland. J Anat. Soc. India, 2001; 50(2): 122-126.
[9]
Dezna C Sheehan, Barbara B Hrapchak. Chapter 2 – Fixation. Chapter 12 – Pigments and minerals. Chapter 14, Nerve tissue. Chapter 15- Special cells and tissues. Theory and Practice of Histotechnology. 2nd ed. Mosby Company, 1980: 43, 47, 220 – 222, 227,260, 277.
[10]
C F A Culling, R T Allison, W T Barr. Chapter 4- Processing. Chapter 5 – Microtomy. Chapter 7 – Staining procedure. Chapter 8 – Haematoxylins and counterstains. Cellular pathology Technique. 4th ed. Butterworths & Co. (Publishers) Ltd, 1985: 55 – 63, 91 – 95, 135 – 139, 146, 151, 155 – 160.
[11]
John D Bancroft, Alan Stevens. Chapter 3- Tissue processing. Chapter 13 – Pigments and minerals. Chapter 16 – Bone. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 3rd ed. Churchill Livingstone, 1990: 45 – 52, 253 – 255, 333.
[12]
R.A.B. Drury, E.A. Wallington. Chapter 11- Bone and decalcification. Chapter 14- Pigments. Chapter 19- The nervous System. Carleton’s Histological Technique. 5th ed. Oxford University Press, 1980: 217, 269 – 271, 373.
[13]
Eugenia R. A. Cooper. The human pineal gland and pineal cysts. J Anat (Lond). 67: 28-46.
[14]
Svetlana Antic, Ivan Jovanovic, Natalija Stefanovic, Snezana Pavlovic, Gorana Rancic, Sladana Ugrenovic. Morphology and histochemical characteristics human pineal gland acervuli during the aging. Facta Universitatis Series. Medicine and Biology. 2004; Vol.11, No 2: 63 – 68.
[15]
Gusek. W. Histology of the pineal gland in the elderly human. Adv Gerontol. 1983; May, 13(3): 111-114.
[16]
Wu YH, Swaab D F. The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. J Pineal Res. 2005; Apr, 38(3): 145- 152.
[17]
Savel’ev S V, Erofeev E A, Fokin E I, Gulimoa V I, De Clerq N, PostNov A A. Human epiphyseal concrements in schizophrenia. Arkh Patol. 2004; Jul-Aug, 66 (4): 13-16.
[18]
Yunqian Li, Gang Zhao, Honglei Wang, Wanan Zhu, Limei Qu, Ye Li, Jinlu Yu. Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen’s approach. World Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2011; 9: 64.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186