American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 79-85
Received: Jul. 15, 2014;
Accepted: Jul. 28, 2014;
Published: Aug. 10, 2014
Views 3791 Downloads 250
Zeinab Abd Elmohdy Abd-Elhaleem, Forensic medicine and clinical toxicology department, faculty of medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Badar AbdulMohsen Al Muqhem, Pediatric department, King Khaled Hospital, Al Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
Background: Acute poisoning is a common situation in emergency departments all over the world. It may cause severe complications and death. Treatment of these cases requires great medical care and significant costs. There are many differences with respect to the pattern and cause of acute poisoning between geographical regions, even within the same country. Objective: This study was carried out to assess the pattern of acute poisoning with drugs, chemicals and natural toxins in both adults and children in Al Majmaah region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was conducted at King Khaled Hospital in Al Majmaah region. The medical records of cases who were admitted due to acute poisoning from January 2009 to December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: This study included 591 acute poisoned cases presented to ED. There were 79.4% more than 12 years old and 20.6% under 12 years old. .Number of males with toxic exposure was 435 while that of females was 156. Animal envenomation contributed to most of these cases. Unfortunately, other data of these cases could not be followed as 422 cases were observed and discharged from ED. Of them 188 were observed, received no treatment and discharged from ED. The other 234 cases were treated and discharged from ED. The medical record of 169 cases who were admitted to pediatric and internal medicine department could be retrieved and studied completely. There were 5.6% infants, 74.4% between 1–6 years old, 20% between 6-12 years old, 15.2% between 12-18 years old, 83.5 between 18-60 years old and 1.3% more than 60 years old. Pharmaceutical drugs and household products were the main causes of poisoning in cases under 12 years old ( 84.4%) while, animal envenomation; mainly scorpion stings contributed to most cases over 12 years old (62%). Conclusion: Accidental poisoning is still a significant cause of morbidity. Regarding the high prevalence of pharmaceutical drug and household products poisoning in children, implementation of legislations to ban over the counter selling of medications and to sell potentially dangerous chemicals in childproof containers is recommended. Improving proper and complete medical record-keeping is also suggested for a better information access.
Zeinab Abd Elmohdy Abd-Elhaleem,
Badar AbdulMohsen Al Muqhem,
Pattern of Acute Poisoning in Al Majmaah Region, Saudi Arabia, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
Vol. 2, No. 4,
2014, pp. 79-85.
Sorodoc V, Jaba IM, Lionte C etal (2011) Epidemiology of acute drug poisoning in a tertiary center from Iasi County, Romania. Human and Experimental Toxicology 30(12):1896–1903.
Desalew M, Aklilu A, Amanue A etal (2011) Pattern of acute adult poisoning at Tikur Anbessa specialized teaching hospital, a retrospective study, Ethiopia. Hum Exp Toxicol 30(7):523–527.
Singh B and Unnikrishnan B (2006) A profile of acute poisoning at Mangalore (South India). J Clin Med 13: 112–116.
Islambulchilar M, Islambulchilar Z and Kargar-Maher MH (2009) Acute adult poisoning cases admitted to a university hospital in Tabriz, Iran. Hum Exp Toxicol 28: 185–190.
Ahmadi A, Pakravan N and Ghazizadeh Z (2010) Pattern of acute food, drug, and chemical poisoning in Sari City, Northern Iran. Hum Exp Toxicol 29(9):731–738.
Saddique A(2001) Poisoning in Saudi Arabia: ten-year experience in King Khalid University Hospital. Ann Saudi Med 21 (1–2), 88–91.
Al Hazmi AM(1998) Patterns of accidental poisoning in children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Annals of Saudi Medicine18 (5): 457 – 459.
Izuora GI and Adeoye A(2001) A seven year review of accidental poisoning in children at a military Hospital in HAFR AL Batin, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine 21 (1-2): 13 – 16.
Al-Shehri M.(2004) Pattern of child hood poisoning in Abha city. southwestern Saudi Arabia, Saudi Society of Family and Community Medicine Journal 11(2):59-63.
Lund C, Vallersnes OM, Jacobsen D, Ekeberg O and Hovda KE(2012) Outpatient treatment of acute poisoning in Oslo:poisoning pattern, factors associated with hospitalization and mortality. Journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine 20:1-10.
Jayakrishnan B, Al Asmi A, Al Qassabi A, Nandhagopal R, Mohammed I (2012) Acute Drug Overdose: Clinical Profile, Etiologic Spectrum and Determinants of Duration of Intensive Medical Treatment .Oman Medical Journal 27(6): 501-504.
Moazzam M, Al-Saigul AM, Naguib M and Al Alfi MA(2009) Pattern of acute poisoning in Al- Qassim region: a surveillance report from Saudi Arabia, 1999–2003. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 15 (4) :1005-1010.
Kaale E, MoriA, Risha P, Hasham S, Mwambete K (2013)A Retrospective Study of Poisoning at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar-Es Salaam, Tanzania. Journal of public health frontier 2(1):21-26.
Al-Barraq A and Farahat F(2011) Pattern and determinants of poisoning in a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J 19, 57–63.
Gheshlaghi F, Piri-Ardakani M, Yaraghi M, Shafiei F and Behjati M (2013) Acute Poisoning in Children; a Population Study in Isfahan, Iran, 2008-2010. Iran J Pediatr 23 (2): 189-193.
Hegazy R, Almalki WH, Afify RHM (2012) Pattern of acute poisoning in Makkah region Saudi Arabia. The Egyptian journal of community medicine 30(1):1-10.
Abula T and Wondmikun Y (2006) The pattern of acute poisoning in a teaching hospital, north-we`st Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 44: 183–189.
Mert E and Bilgin NG (2005) Demographic, aetiological and characterstics of poisoning in Mersin, Turkey. Human Exp Toxicol 24: 49–54.
Tu¨fekc¸i IB, Curgunlu A, and Sirin F(2004) Characteristics of acute adult poisoning cases admitted to a university hospital in Istanbul. Hum Exp Toxicol 23:347-351.
Shadnia S, Esmaily H, Sasanian G, Pajoumand A, Hassanian-Moghaddam H, and Abdollahi M (2007) Pattern of acute poisoning in Tehran-Iran in 2003. Hum Exp Toxicol 26: 753–756.
Sahin S, Carman KB, Dinleyici EC( 2011) Acute Poisoning in Children; Data of a Pediatric Emergency Unit. Iran J Pediatr 21(4): 479-84.
Gupta S, Peshin S, Srivastava A and Kaleekal T(2003) A study of childhood poisoning at national poison information centre, All India institute of medical sciences, New Delhi .J Occup Health 45:191-196.
Al-Sadoon MK, Jarrar BM (2003) Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997. J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis 9 (1):54-64.
Lira-DA-Silva RM, Amorin AM, Brazil TK(2000) Envenenamento por Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) no estado da Bahia, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33, 239-45.
Senadheera C, Marecek J, Hewage C and Wijayasiri WAA(2010) A hospital-based study on trends in deliberate self-harm in children and adolescents. Ceylon Med J 55(2):67–68.
Bronstein AC, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, et al (2007) Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers' National Poison Data System. Clin Toxicol 45: 815-917.
AlArifi MN, AlMadi S, Gubara OA ( 2003) Survey of drug information centers in Riyadh city Saudi Arabia. Arab. J Pharm Sci 2, 27–28.
Asiri UA, AlArifi MN, AlSultan MS, Gubara OA (2007) Evaluation of Drug and Poison Information Center in Saudi Arabia during the period from 2000–2002. SMJ 28 (4), 617–619.
Bataineh HA and Bataineh AM (2007) Childhood accidental poisoning in Tafila. Iran J Ped 17(1):23-26.
Mohammad H. Al-Hemairi, Fazlur Rahim, Abdullah Al-Shamrani, Saad Hashmi, Sultan Qasim (2013) Scorpion envenomation : an experience with children at Rabigh general hospital, KSA.J Med Sci 21(2): 53-57.
Al-Asmari AK and Al-Saif AA (2004) Scorpion sting syndrome in a general hospital in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 25(1):64-70.
Ismail M (2004) Treatment of the scorpion envenoming syndrome: 12- years experience with seroterapy. Int J Antimicrobial Agents 21 (2): 170-74.