American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 233-236
Received: Aug. 6, 2015;
Accepted: Aug. 19, 2015;
Published: Oct. 9, 2015
Views 3945 Downloads 45
Mohammad Iqbal, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Bannu Medical College, Bannu, KPK-Pakistan
Wasim Ahmed, Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK-Pakistan
The objective of the aforesaid study was to assess the frequency of Epistaxis in IDPs who migrated from North Waziristan agency during military operation “Zarb-E-Azab”. This study was conducted in ENT department, DHQ teaching hospital Bannu from august 2014 to May 2015. The inclusion criteria was acute epistaxis occurred due to any reason. The exclusion criteria were the natural blood stoppage. The data was collected based on age, gender, causes, type, treatment success rate and the actual need for hospitalization of victims. The results of this study showed that out of 121 patients during 10 months, 72% (87.12) were male patients while rest of the patients i.e. 28% (33.88) were female. The prevalence of epistaxis in male was higher than the female patients. The average age group was 37 years. During the study, the most prevailing cause for the epistaxis was trauma (50.20%) in youngsters which was followed by hypertension (29.30%) in adults. Anterior epistaxis was around 58.20% while posterior one was 22.11%. AgNO3 cautry (56.45%) was the commonest treatment regimen followed by anterior nasal packing (32.78%). We achieved a success rate of 30% for AgNO3 cautry and 47% for anterior nasal packing. In cases of acute/persistent epistaxis, where first-aid events have failed, and providing a bleeding vessel is visible, cautery with a silver nitrate tipped stick is the treatment of choice. However, where there is profuse bleeding from larger nasal arteries or veins, difficulty is often experienced in curtailing the blood flow, and commonly one must resort to electro cautry or tamponade by balloon or packing. Modifying the technique of silver nitrate cautry will result in universal success.
Epistaxis: Its Prevalence in IDPs of North Waziristan Agency, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2015, pp. 233-236.
Moreau S, De Rugy MG, Babin E, Courtheoux P, Valdazo A. Supraselective embolization in intractable epistaxis: review of 45 cases. Laryngoscope. 1998 Jun. 108(6):887-8.
Abelson TI. Epistaxis. Schaefer SD. Rhinology and Sinus Disease 1st ed. New York: Mosby; 1998. 43-50.
Douglas R, Wormald PJ. Update on epistaxis. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Jun. 15(3):180-3.
Emanuel JM. Epistaxis. Cummings CW. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998. 852-865.
Pope LE, Hobbs CG. Epistaxis: an update on current management. Postgrad Med J. 2005 May. 81(955):309-14.
Cummings CW. Epistaxis. Cummings. Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier, Mosby; 2005. Chap 40.
Padgham N. Epistaxis: anatomical and clinical correlates. J Laryngol Otol. 1990 Apr. 104(4):308-11.
Guarisco JL, Graham HD 3rd. Epistaxis in children: causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Ear Nose Throat J. 1989 Jul. 68(7):522, 528-30, 532 passim.
Purkey MR, Seeskin Z, Chandra R. Seasonal variation and predictors of epistaxis. Laryngoscope. 2014 Mar 15.
Jarjour IT, Jarjour LK. Migraine and recurrent epistaxis in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2005 Aug. 33(2):94-7.
Knight YE, Goadsby PJ. The periaqueductal grey matter modulates trigeminovascular input: a role in migraine?. Neuroscience. 2001. 106(4):793-800.
Sarhan NA, Algamal AM. Relationship between epistaxis and hypertension: a cause and effect or coincidence?. J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2015 Apr. 27 (2):79-84.
Qureishi A, Burton MJ. Interventions for recurrent idiopathic epistaxis (nosebleeds) in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12. 9:CD004461.
Kucik CJ, Clenney T. Management of epistaxis summary for patients. Am Fam Physcian 2005;71:305-11.
Pradhan. Management of refractory posterior epistaxis by sphenopalatine artery cauterization. Nepal J ENT Head Neck Surg 2010;1:3-5.
Tevmoortash A, Sesterhenn A, Kress R, Sapundhiev N, Werner JA. Efficacy of ice packs in the management of epistaxis. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci 2003; 28:545-7.
Hussain G, Iqbal M, Shah SA. Evaluation of aeitiology and efficacy of management protocol of epistaxis. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2006;18:62-5.
Awan MS, Ali MM, Hussain I, Mian MY. Management of pediatrics epistaxis: a prospective study of 100 cases. Profess Med J 2001;8:226-65.
Ali S, Mumtaz S, Saeed M. Epistaxis: aetiology and management. Ann King Edward Med Coll 2003;9:272-4.
Shaheen OH. Epistaxis. In: Mackay IS, Bull TR, eds. Scott Brown's Otolaryngology. 5th edn London: Butterworths, 1987; 272-282.