Overview of Development on Self-Inhalation Filter Type Respiratory Protective Technology Against Polluted Air in Residential Environment
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 322-326
Received: Dec. 3, 2015; Published: Dec. 4, 2015
Views 2904      Downloads 45
Lei Yang, School of Energy and Environment, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China
Yue Liu, School of Energy and Environment, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China
Minghao Chu, School of Energy and Environment, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China
Henggen Shen, School of Environment Science & Engineering, DongHua University, Shanghai, China
Article Tools
Follow on us
There are many types of respirators used in residential environment for individual respiratory protection. Many factors may influence the protective performance of respirators. This paper tries to review the factors in the research development of self-inhalation filter type respiratory protective technology against polluted air in residential environment. Those factors mainly include the leakage; respirator fit test panels, constructing fibers and respirator performance test method. The conclusions from the reviewed literatures show that: (1) the leakage of respirator worn on individuals may be an important reason for the decrease of respirator’s protection. (2) The respirator fit test panels should be developed in advance because they are vital to the good design and the valid test of respirators. (3) The fibers for the filtering part of respirators may be also important to the protective performance of the respirators. Low inhalation resistance and high filtering efficiency are the expectation to a good respirator. (4) The respirator test method applied for evaluating the protective performance depends on the location or environment of the used respirator. Howsoever, the challenge and the most penetrating particle size should be considered before confirming the respirator test method.
Respirator, Leakage, Fit Test Panels, Polluted Air, Residential Environment
To cite this article
Lei Yang, Yue Liu, Minghao Chu, Henggen Shen, Overview of Development on Self-Inhalation Filter Type Respiratory Protective Technology Against Polluted Air in Residential Environment, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 322-326. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20150305.32
Holton, P.M., Tackett, D. L. and Willeke K.: ‘Particle Size-Dependent Leakage and Losses of Aerosols in Respirators’, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1987, 48, (10): pp.848-854.
Burgess, G.L., and Mashingaidze, M.T.: ‘Respirator leakage in the pharmaceutical industry of Northwest England’, Ann Occup Hyg. 1999, 43, (8), pp. 513-517.
Suruda, A., Milliken, W., Stephenson, D., and Sesek R.: ‘Fatal Injuries in the United States Involving Respirators (1984-1995)’, App Occup Environ Hyg, 2003, 18, (4), pp. 289-292.
Davis, W.T.: ‘Filtration Efficiency of Surgical Face Masks: the Need for More Meaningful Standards’, Am J Infect Control, 1991, 19, pp. 16-18.
Shen, H., Yang, L., Liu, G. Wang, H.Y., Cai, L.S., Liu, S., and Lu, Y.: ‘Performance of a new mask material in filtering ambient aerosols for medical staff’, Acad J Sec Mil Med Univ, 2003, 24, (6), pp. 629-631 (in Chinese).
Crutchfield, C., Ruiz, A., and Van Ert, M.: ‘A Validation Study of Respirator Fit Testing by Controlled Negative Pressure’, Appl Occup Environ Hyg, 1994, 9, (5), pp. 362-366.
Willeke, K., and Krishnan, U.: ‘Present Procedures in Quantitative Respirator Fit Testing: Problems and Potential Solutions’, Appl Occup Environ Hyg, 1990, 5, (11), pp. 762-768.
Myers, W.R., Allender, J., Plummer, R., and Stobbe, T.: ‘Parameters that Bias the Measurement of Airborne Concentration Within a Respirator’, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1986, 47, (2), pp. 106-114.
Oestenstad, R.K., Perkins, J.L., and Rose, V.E.: ‘Identification of Faceseal Leak Sites on a Half-Mask Respirator’, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1990, 51, (5), pp. 280-284.
Crutchfield, C.D., Park, D.L., and Henshel, J.L.: ‘Determinations of Known Respirator Leakage Using Controlled Negative Pressure and Ambient Aerosol QNFT Systems’, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1995, 56, (1), pp. 16-23.
Yang, L., and Shen, H.G.: ‘The Assessment on The Leakage of Simple Respiratory Protection in Ambient Air’, Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005, Beijing, Sep. 2005, Vol.I, (2), pp. 1011-1015.
Yang, L., and Shen, H.G.: ‘Quantitative Study on the Relationship between Leakage Volume of N95 Respirators and Inhaled Airflow against PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0’, Proceedings of 6th International Scientific Conference of International Occupational Hygiene Association, Johannesburg, Sep. 2005, pp. 231-236.
Yang, L., Shen, H.G., and Wu, G.: ‘Racial Differences in Respirator Fit Testing: A Pilot Study of Whether American Fit Panels are Representative of Chinese Faces’, Ann Occup Hyg, 2007, 51, (4), pp. 415-421.
Hyatt, E.C., Pritchard, J.A., and Richards, C.P.: ‘Respirator efficiency measurements using quantitative DOP man tests’, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1972, 33, pp. 635–643.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - NIOSH ‘Anthropometry for respirator sizing, DHEW/NIOSH TR-004-73’, by McConville, J.T., Churchill, E., Laubach, L.L., Cincinnati, O.H.: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1972, pp. 1–44.
Hack, A.L., and McConville, J.T.: ‘Respirator protection factors: Part I—Development of an anthropometric test panel’. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1978, 39, pp. 970–975.
Oestenstad, R.K., Perkins, J.L., and Rose, V.E.: ‘Distribution of faceseal leak sites on a half-mask respirator and their association with facial dimensions’. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1990, 51, pp. 285–290.
Zhuang, Z.: ‘Anthropometric research to support RFTPs’. Presented at the CDC workshop on respiratory protection for airborne infectious agents, Atlanta, GA, November 2004.
U.S. Census Bureau: ‘Statistical Abstract of the United States 2006’, November 29, 2006.
U.K. The Office for National Statistics – ONS: ‘International Migration - Migrants entering or leaving the United Kingdom and England and Wales Series MN no.31’, 2004, November 29, 2006.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – NIOSH: ‘Code of Federal Regulations: Respiratory Protective devices (42 CFR Part84), Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA)’, 2001, 546-568.
The European Standards Committee – ESC: ‘European Standards: Respiratory Protective Devices, Filtering Half Masks to Protect against Particles: Requirements, testing, marking (EN149)’, Belgium: The European Committee for Standardization, 2001, 21-120.
Haskell, B.: ‘CBRN Respirator Performance and Standards Overview, in 2009 Fire PPE Symposium’, http://www.ci.salisbury.nc.us/fire/intranet/PPE%20Symposium%20CD%20(D)/16.%20CBRN%20Respirator%20Performance.pdf, Mar. 10, 2009.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – NIOSH,: ‘Approaches to Safe - Managing the Health and Safety Concerns Associated with Engineered Nanomaterials’, http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2009-125/pdfs/2009-125.pdf, Mar. 2009.
Janssen, L.L., Bidwell, J.O., Mullins, H.E., and Nelson, T.J.: ‘Efficiency of Degraded Electret Filters: Part I – Laboratory Testing Against NaCl and DOP before and after Exposure to Workplace Aerosols’, J Int Soc Respir Protect, 2003, 20, pp. 71-80.
Janssen, L., Bidwell, J., and McCullough, N: ‘Performance of an N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirator in a Grinding Operation’, J Int Soc Respir Protect, 2007, 24, pp. 21-30.
Penconek A., Drążyk P., and Moskal A.: “Penetration of Diesel Exhaust Particles Through Commercially Available Dust Half Masks” Ann Occup Hyg, 2013, 57(3), pp. 360-373.
Shaffer, R., and Rengasamy, S.: ‘Air Purifying Respirators for the Nanotechnology Industry’, http://www.nrt.org/production/NRT/NRTWeb.nsf/AllAttachmentsByTitle/A-880WSHTCAirPurifyingRespiratorsfortheNanotechnolgoyIndustry/$File/8.%20Air%20Purifying%20respirators%20for%20the%20Nanotechnology%20Industry.pdf?OpenElement, Aug. 2007.
Du, L., Zhuang, Z., Guan, H., et al.: ‘Head-and-face anthropometric survey of Chinese workers’. Ann Occup Hyg; 2008, 8, pp.773–782.
Yang, L., and Shen, H.G. ‘Performance Evaluation of Electret Fiber, Non-woven and Cotton Fiber used for Respirators Challenged with Polydisperse Ambient Aerosols’, in Proceedings of 2007 International Forum on Biomedical Textile Materials, May 2007, Shanghai, 114-117.
Chen, W.H., Zhuang, Z., Benson, S., Du, L.L., Yu, D., Landsittel, D., Wang L., Viscusi, D. and Shaffer, R.E.: ‘New Respirator Fit Test Panels Representing the Current Chinese Civilian Workers’, Ann Occup Hyg, 2009, 53, (3), pp.297-305.
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies - IMNA, USA: ‘Reusability of Facemasks during an Infuenza Pandemic’, Washington, DC: the National Academies Press, 2006, pp.37-78.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186