An Assessment of Renal Function Parameters on the Ameliorative Properties of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Cadmium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Wistar Rats Model
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 4, July 2016, Pages: 112-117
Received: May 25, 2016; Accepted: Jun. 2, 2016; Published: Jun. 21, 2016
Views 4124      Downloads 167
Ogunnaike Philip Olubunmi, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson [Snr.] School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
Olatunji Sunday Yinka, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson [Snr.] School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
Owolabi Joshua Oladele, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson [Snr.] School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
Fabiyi Adetutu Olubusayo, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson [Snr.] School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
Olanrewaju John Afees, Department of Anatomy, Benjamin Carson [Snr.] School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Renal failure is a growing concern in the modern society and the increasing rate of exposure to toxic substances has contributed a lot to renal diseases. As a result of this, there is a great need for agents that can serve as nephroprotective. The present study assessed some parameters of renal function on the ameliorative properties of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in cadmium (Cd) - induced nephrotoxicity in adult wistar rats model. The study was performed on twenty four (24) male Wistar rats divided into four groups: Group A (Control), Group B (Cd), Group C (Cd + 100mg/kg BW of GBE) and Group D (Cd + 300mg/kg BW of GBE). The Cd and GBE were administered orally through oro-gastric cannula. The results showed changes in the renal function chemical parameters (creatinine, urea, and total protein) in the treated groups compared to the control group. Exposure to Cd lowered the activities of the kidney by increasing the plasma level of creatinine and urea, and decreasing the plasma level of total protein. The creatinine concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) in groups C and D while the urea concentration increased on GBE administration. A significant decrease was observed in the plasma total protein level in the Cd group when compared with the control and on administration of GBE there was an increase in the plasma total protein concentration in groups C and D. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba treatment ameliorated the effects of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity in all parameters except urea which is to be further investigated. These may be explained by the oxidative and anti-oxidative properties of the Cd and GBE respectively and their mechanisms of action.
Ginkgo Biloba, Nephrotoxicity, Cadmium
To cite this article
Ogunnaike Philip Olubunmi, Olatunji Sunday Yinka, Owolabi Joshua Oladele, Fabiyi Adetutu Olubusayo, Olanrewaju John Afees, An Assessment of Renal Function Parameters on the Ameliorative Properties of Ginkgo Biloba Extract in Cadmium-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Wistar Rats Model, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016, pp. 112-117. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20160404.15
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Levy E. M., Viscose C. M., Horwitz R. I. (1996). The effect of acute renal failure on mortality: A cohort analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 275, 1489–1494.
Thadhani R., Pascual M., Bonventre J. V. (1996). Acute renal failure. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 1448–1460.
Brady H. R., Brenner B. M., Clarkson M. R., et al. (2000). Acute renal failure. In Brenner B. M. (Ed.), Brenner and Rector’s the kidney (6th ed., pp. 1201–1247). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Guyton A., Hall J. E. (2000). Textbook of medical physiology (10th ed., pp. 369–371, 373–378). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.
Schrier R. W., Wang W., Poole B. and Mitra A. (2004). Acute renal failure: definitions, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and therapy. The journal of Clinical Investigation, 114: p: 5-14.
Gallo, Michael (2001). "History and Scope of Toxicology." In Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th edition, ed. Curtis D. Klaasen. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Arisawa K, Uemura H, Hiyoshi M, Dakeshita, Kitayama A, Saito H, (2007) Cause-specific mortality and cancer incidence rates in relation to urinary beta 2-microglobulin: 23-year follow-up study in a cadmium-polluted area. Toxicol Lett. 28: 168-174.
Long C, Juan Z, Wei G, Ying-Zi J (2003) Action of NO and TNF-α release of rats with cadmium loading in malfunction of multiple system organs. Acta Physiologica Sinica 55 (5): 535-540.
Kaplan M, Atakan I. H, Aydigdu N, (2008) Influence of N-acetylcysteine on renal toxicity of cadmium in rats. Pediatr Nephrol 23: 233-241.
Othman Z. A, Hashem A, Habila M. A (2011) Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies of cadmium (II) absorption by modified agricultural wastes. Molecules 15: 10443-10456.
Patra R. C, Rautray A. K, Swarup D (2011) Oxidative stress in lead and cadmium toxicity and its amelioration. Veterinary Medicine International. Vol 20: article ID: 457327.
Baselt R. C. and Cravey R. H. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 4th edition, Chemical Toxicology Institute, Foster City, CA, 1995, ISBN 0-9626523-1-8.
Graham R. E, Ahn A. C, Davis R. B, O’Connor B. B, Eisenberg D. M, Phillips R. S. (2005). Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies among radical and ethnic minority adults: results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. J Natl Med Assoc 97: pp. 535-455.
Shati A. A, Elsaid F. G. (2009). Effects of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber offocinale Roscoe) on alcohol abuse. Food Chem Toxicol 47: 1945-1949.
Shati A. A, Almari S. A. (2010) Role of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and honey syrup on aluminium-induced hepatotoxicity. Saudi Med J 31: 1106-1113.
[16] Mustoe, G. E. (2002). "Eocene Ginkgo leaf fossils from the Pacific Northwest". Canadian Journal of Botany 80 (10): 1078–1087.
Van Beek T. A, Montoro P (2009). "Chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo biloba leaves, extracts, and phytopharmaceuticals". J Chromatography A 1216 (11): 2002–2032.
Wadsworth T. L, Koop D. R (2001). Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and quercetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced release of nitric oxide. Chemico-Biological Interactions; 137 (1): 43-58.
Bridi R, Crossetti FP, Steffen VM, Henriques AT (2001). The antioxidant activity of standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in rats. Phytotherapy Research. 15 (5): 449-451.
Hamdy M. M, Dalia A. E, Abedlhamid M. M (2013) Protective effect of curcumin and Ginkgo biloba extract against Gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Assiut. Med. J. Vol. (37) 1, pg 1-12
Naidu M. U, Schifow AA, Kumar KV, Ratnakar KS (2000). Ginkgo biloba extract ameliorates getamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. 7 (3): 191-197.
Ranjna Chawla (1999), Practical Clinical Biochemistry; Methods and Interpretations, second edition. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. ISBN 81-7179-637-0.
Nordberg M. and Nordberg G. F (2002). “Chapter 8,” in Heavy Metals in the Environment, B. Sarkar, Ed., pp. 231-270, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA.
Chargui A, Zekri S, Rubera G. C. I (2011) Cadmium-induced autophagy in rat kidney: an early biomarker of sub-toxic exposure. Toxicol Sci 121 (1): pp. 31-42.
Tripathi S, Srivastav A. K (2011) Cytoarchitectural alterations in kidney of Wistar rat after oral exposure to cadmium chloride. Tissue Cell 43 (2): 131-136.
Proziaaleck W. C, Edwards J. R (2007) Cell adhesion molecules in chemically induced renal injury. Pharmacol Ther 114: 74-93.
Boroushaki M. T, Mollazadeh H, Rajabian A, Dolati K, Hoseni A, Paseban M, Farzadina M (2014) Protective effect of pomegranate seed oil against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Ren Fail 36 (10): 1581-1586.
Asare G. A, Addo P, Bugyei K, Gyan B, Adjei S, Otu-Nyarko L. S, Wiredu E. K, Nyarko A (2011). Acute toxicity studies of aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri. Interdiscip. Toxicol. 4: 206-210.
Travlos G. S, Morris R. W, Elwell M. R, Duke A, Rosenblum S, Thompson M. B. (1996) Frequency and relationships of clinical chemistry and liver and kidney histopathology findings in 13-week toxicity studies in rats. Toxicology 107: 17-29.
Kumar G, Banu S. G, Kannan V, Pandian R. M (2005) Antihepatotoxic effects of β – carotene on paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. Ind J Exper Biol 43: 351-355.
Ganong W. F. (2009) Review of Medical Physiology (23rd edition). Mc Graw-Hill: New York.
Liu J, Habeebu SS, Liu Y, Klaassen CD (1998). Acute CdMT injection is not a good model to study chronic Cd nephropathy: comparison of chronic CdCl2 and CdMT exposure with acute CdMT injection in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 15 3 (1): 48-58.
Girolami J. P, Cabos G, Manuel Y (1989). Renal kallikrin excretion as a distal nephrotoxicity marker during cadmium exposure in rat. J Toxicol 55: pp. 117-126.
Renugadevi J, Prabu S. M (2009) Naringenin protects against cadmium-induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats. Toxicol 256: 128-134.
Shatti A. A (2011) Effects of Origanum majorana L. On cadmium induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Saudi Med J 32 (8): 15-20.
Okuyan B, Izzettin F. V, Bingol-Ozakpinar O, Turan P, Ozdemir Z. N, Sancar M, Cirakli Z, Clark P. M, Ercan F. (2012). The effects of Ginkgo biloba on nephrotixicity induced by cisplatin-based chemotherapy protocols in rats. IUFS Journal of Biology 7 (2): 103-111.
Olatunji S. Y, Adewole O. S, Ayannuga O. A, Taiye A. S, Adedayo A. D, Sesan O. O. (2015) Microanatomy and histomorphometry analysis of the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on lead-induced kidney damage in adult wistar rats. Intl J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 9 (3): 1599-1614.
Abd-Allh S. O (2014). Precautionary Effect of Ginkgo biloba Against Mercury-Induced Acute Nephro-Hepatotoxicity in male Rats. Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences. 9 Vol.(22). 2390-2405.
Olivier B, Gregory J, Michel T, Marc C (2005) Effect of heavy metals on, and handling by, the kidney. Nephron Physiol. 99: 105-110.
Morowati M. (2001) Biochemical and histopathological changes in serum creatinine and kidney induced by inhalation of Thimet (phorate) in male Swiss Albino mouse, Mus Musculus. Environ Res. 87: 31-36.
Jadhav S. H, Sarkar S. N, Aggrawal M, Tripathi H. C (2007) Induction of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of male rats subchronically exposed to a mixture of eight metal found as groundwater contaminants in different parts of India. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 52: 145-151.
Li G, Sang N, Guo D. (2006). Oxidative damage induced in hearts, kidneys and spleens of mice by landfill leachate. Chemosphere 65: 1058-1063.
Zalpus R. K. (2000). Molecular interactions with mercury in the kidney. Pharmacol. Rev., 52: 113-143.
Sudo J, Hayashi T, Kimura S, Kakuno K, Terui J, Takashima K, Soyama M. (1996). Mechanism of nephrotoxicity induced by repeated administration of Cadmium chloride in rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 48 (4): 333-348.
Dorian C, Klaassen C. D. (1995). Protection by Zinc-Metallothionein (ZnMt) against Cadmium-Metallothionein (Cd-Mt) induced nephrotoxicity. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 26 (1): pp. 99-106.
Thijssen S, Maringwa J, Faes C, Lambrichts I, Kerkhove E. V. (2007). Chronic exposure of mice to environmentally relevant, low doses of cadmium leads to early renal damage, not predicted by blood or urine cadmium levels. Toxicology 229 (2): 145-156.
Tang W and Shaikh Z. A. (2001). Renal cortical mitochondrial dysfunction upon cadmium metallathionein administration to sprague-dawley rats. J Toxicol Environ Health – Part A. 63 (3): 221-235.
Yasuno F, Tanimukai Sasakib M, Ikejima C, Yamashita F, Kodama C, Mizukami K, Asada T (2012) Combination of antioxidant supplements improved cognitive function in the elderly. J Alzheimers Dis 32: 895-903.
Singh B, Kaur P, Gopichand, Singh R. D, Ahuja PS. (2008). Biology and Chemistry of Ginkgo biloba. Fitoterapia. 79 (6): 401-418.
Murray K. M, Granner D. K, Mayer P. A, and Rodwell V. W. (2000) Harpers Biochemistry 25th edition 8: pp. 83-85, 130-136.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186