Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subset of T cells with immunosuppressive functions. According to the source and mechanism of Treg cells, they are divided into natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) and induced regulatory T cells (iTreg). According to the different properties of secreted cytokines, they are divided into two types: pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cells. Pro-inflammatory Treg cells that secrete IFN-ã are closely related to the development of autoimmune diseases, while anti-inflammatory Treg cells that secrete IL-10 can reduce the development of slow inflammation. In addition to secreting a variety of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-â, Treg cells also exert immunosuppressive effects through direct contact among cells to jointly maintain the body's immune tolerance and suppress immune responses. By suppressing the autoimmune response of effector T cells and promoting immune tolerance, it has a very important role in maintaining the homeostasis of the body. The differentiation and regulation of Treg cells and their relationship with autoimmune diseases have been hotspots in the field of immunology in recent years. This article reviews the source of Treg, differentiation regulation, classification, markers, functions and mechanisms of action so as to deepen the understanding of Treg cell differentiation and immune regulation mechanisms, and further broaden the research horizon and thinking.
Research Progress on Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Regulation, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
Vol. 8, No. 3,
2020, pp. 31-40.
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