Potentials of nutritional therapy, phytopharmaceuticals and phytomedicine in the prevention and control of Ebola virus in Africa
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 1-1, February 2015, Pages: 1-6
Received: Dec. 17, 2014;
Accepted: Dec. 18, 2014;
Published: Feb. 14, 2015
Views 4320 Downloads 152
Kenneth Yongabi Anchang, Tropical Infectious Diseases and public Health Engineering Research Group (TIDPHERG), Phytobiotechnology Research Foundation Institute, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda,P.O.Box 921, Bamenda, Cameroon, +237675266162; Department of Health Economics, Policy and Management, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda
Mary Garba, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bamenda, Cameroon
Florence Titu Manjong, Department of Health Economics, Policy and Management, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda
Tiagueu Yvette T, Computer Science Department, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
With more than 15000 people infected with Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) leading to more than 7000 deaths in Liberia, Serra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria and Senegal, Ebola Virus Disease remains one of the most dreaded scourges and concerns in contemporary international health (CIH). We note in this essay, that current intervention strategies for the containment of emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola may remain inadequate unless an integrated health intervention (IHI) strategy is adopted. Focus on vaccine development is, undoubtedly, critical but unlikely soon. Synthetic antiviral therapy (AVT) or antifiloviral therapy (AFT) such as using Zmapp, Favipiravir and Brincindofovir amongst others may remain therapeutically inadequate to contain not only Ebola but future scourges. For one fact, as already observed, Zmapp, TKM-Ebola and Favipiravir are hopeful but clouded with toxicity concerns and like any antibiotic of single molecular base likely to be resisted by the bug over time. In this article, our position is that, the medical approach to confront Ebola should be a multidisciplinary approach with equality. This will mean providing a medical care that protects health care workers, searching for an effective vaccine and antiviral therapy that is cost effective, weaving cultural, environmental and community based approaches to preventing the spread as well as fostering and incorporating nutritional therapy, traditional medicine as an integrative package for infectious diseases control. We attempted to highlight that african nutriceticals and phytomedicine could be useful in the control of infectious diseases such as Ebola through the use of medicinal plants such as Garcinia kola extracts and the exploitation of mushroom extracts such as Ganoderma lucidum containing selenium, Iron, zinc, 7-8% crude protein, 26-28% carbohydrates and a range of bioactive protein that can boost the immune system of patients with Ebola virus hemorrhagic fevers. Evidence in grey literature demonstrates profound antiviral activities from extracts of Garcinia kola on a range viruses including Ebola virus. Kolaviron, a class of flavonoids from garcinia kola, have been found with profound antiviral activity while compounds from cordycep mycelium such as beta glucans also reported in Ganoderma lucidum and some mushroom species have profound immune boosting potentials against many viral infections. A computerized data base for these compounds for drug development could be generated for use by pharmaceutical companies. It is concluded that, nutritional therapy, phytopharmaceuticals from medicinal plants, could be used not only as drug leads but could clinically complement current management of Ebola virus diseases in African hospitals.
Kenneth Yongabi Anchang,
Florence Titu Manjong,
Tiagueu Yvette T,
Potentials of nutritional therapy, phytopharmaceuticals and phytomedicine in the prevention and control of Ebola virus in Africa, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Special Issue: Clinical Innovations, Developments in the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Ebola Disease (Marburg fever) and Hemorrhagic Fevers.
Vol. 3, No. 1-1,
2015, pp. 1-6.
Chen JZ, Seviour R. Medicinal importance of fungal β-(1→3), (1→6)-glucans. Mycol Res. 2007 Jun; 111(Pt 6):635–52.
Chen LS, Stellrecht CM, Gandhi V (2008) RNA-directed agent, cordycepin, induces cell death in multiple myeloma cells. Brit J Haematol 140:391–682
Hardeep S. Tuli, Sardul S. Sandhu, and A. K. Sharma (2014). Pharmacological and therapeutic potential ofCordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin. 3 Biotech (2014) Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 1-12. DOI 10.1007/s13205-013-0121-9
Holbein S, Wengi A, Decourty L, Freimoser FM, Jacquier A,DichtlrnaI B (2009) Cordycepin interferes with 3’ end formation in yeast independently of its potential to terminate RNA chain elongation. RNA 15:837–849
Kuo CF, Chen CC, Lin CF, Jan MS, Huang RY, Luo YH, Chuang WJ, Sheu CC, Lin YS. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007 Feb; 45(2):278-85. Epub 2006 Sep 1. PubMed PMID: 17029726
Kuo CF, Chen CC, Lin CF, Jan MS, Huang RY, Luo YH, Chuang WJ, Sheu CC, Lin YS.Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Feb; 45(2):278-85. Epub 2006 Sep 1. PubMedPMID: 17029726.
Kuo CF, Chen CC, Luo YH, Huang RY, Chuang WJ, Sheu CC, Lin YS. Cordyceps sinensis mycelium protects mice from group A streptococcal infection. J Med Microbiol. 2005 Aug; 54(Pt 8):795-802. PubMed PMID: 16014434Phillips et al., 2009
K.A.Yongabi (2004) Studies on the use of Medicinal plants and Macro fungi (Lower Plants) in water and Wastewater purification. Proceedings of an International E-conference organized by the International Organization for Biotechnology and Bioengineering (IOBB), Sweden, June14-25.Web Pages online: www.biotech.kth.se/iobb/news/Kenneth/photos.html, www.biotech.kth.se/iobb/news/kenneth04.doc,republished in Tree for Life Journal, March 10,2006,http://mail.treesforlife.org:8083/moringa/staticpages/kenneth04.pdf
K. A. Yongabi, W. F. Mbacham, K. K. Nubia and R. M. Singh (2009). Yeast strains isolated from HIV-seropositive patients in Cameroon and their sensitivity to extracts of eight medicinal plants. African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol.3 (4), PP.133-136
K.A Yongabi.,D.M.Lewis and P.L.Harris (2011)Integrated Phytodisinfectant-sand filter drum for household water treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa ,Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering,5,PP.947-954
Kenneth Yongabi Anchang (2014) Current Developments in Mushroom Biotechnology in Sub Saharan Africa. World Society for Mushroom Biology Mushroom Production (WSMBMP) Bulletin 11: July 31
Madubunyi in 1995 in Pharmaceutical Biology, vol.33.No.3, pp232-237
Rondin S, Horsfield C, Mensah-Quainoo E, Junghanss T, Lucas S, et al. (2006) Contiguous spread of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Buruli ulcer lesions analyzed by histopathology and real-time PCR quantification of mycobacterial DNA. J Pathol 208:119-128.
Sizaire V, Nackers F, Comte E and Portaels F (2006) Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: control, diagnosis, and treatment. Lancet Infect Dis 6:288-296.
Snyder, D. S., and P. L. Small (2003). Uptake and cellular actions of mycolactone, a virulence determinant for Mycobacterium ulcerans. Microb. Pathog. 34: 91–101.
Sopoh G. E, Johnson RC, Chauty A, Dossou AD, Aguiar J, et al. (2007) Buruli ulcer surveillance, Benin, 2003-2005. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 1374-1376.
Spina M, Cuccioloni M, Mozzicafreddo M, Montecchia F, Pucciarelli S, Eleuteri AM, Fioretti E, Angeletti M. Mechanism of inhibition of wt-dihydrofolate reductase from E. coli by tea epigallocatechin-gallate. Proteins. 2008 Jul; 72(1):240-51. Doi: 10.1002/prot.21914. PubMed PMID: 18214969.
Taylor PW, Hamilton-Miller JM, Stapleton PD. Antimicrobial properties of green tea catechins. Food Sci Technol Bull.2005; 2:71-81.
Torrado E., Fraga A.G., Logarinho E., G. Martins T.G., Carmona J. A., Gama J. B., Carvalho M. A., Proença F.,Castro A.G and Pedrosa J. (2010). IFN-g-Dependent Activation of Macrophages during Experimental Infections by Mycobacterium ulcerans is impaired by the Toxin Mycolactone. The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184: 947–955.
WHO (2014). Buruli ulcer. Information resources. http://www.who.int/buruli/information/en/. Accessed 16 October 2014
Yoda Y, Hu ZQ, Zhao WH, Shimamura T. Different susceptibilities of Staphylococcus and Gram-negative rods toepigallocatechin gallate. J Infect Chemother 2004; 10:55-58.
Plant Biotechnol J. Author manuscript; available in PMC May 16, 2014