Canine Rabies Outbreaks, Vaccination Coverage, and Transmission in Humans: Greater Accra Region, Ghana- A Retrospective Study-2006-2011
American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2018, Pages: 58-63
Received: Apr. 10, 2018; Accepted: Apr. 26, 2018; Published: May 21, 2018
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Perdita Hilary Lopes, Department of Epidemiology, Veterinary Services Directorate, Accra, Ghana
Patricia Akweongo, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Fred Wurapa, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Edwin Afari, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Samuel Oko Sackey, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Edward Mark Hansen, Department of Field Services, Veterinary Services Directorate, Accra, Ghana
Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
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Rabies is a highly fatal, viral, zoonotic disease caused by a Lyssa virus. It is acquired through the bite of an infected animal, mostly dogs. Estimated annual global human mortalities from rabies is 61,000, over 99% of which are from developing countries where about US$583.5 million is spent on its control. Rabies is enzootic in Ghana. Vaccinating about 70% of the dog population leads to a reduction in rabies transmission to humans; however, percentage dog anti-rabies vaccination coverage in Ghana is unknown. This study therefore investigated the magnitude of rabies in dogs and humans in the Greater-Accra region, and assessed annual percentage dog anti-rabies vaccination coverage from 2007-2011. Secondary data on rabies vaccination, post mortem and dog quarantine records for all ten districts in the region, and human rabies records were analysed. Means and percentages were calculated, graphs drawn and trends analysed. The number of animal samples which tested positive out of 309, was 283. Predictive value positive was 91.6%. Of the positive cases, 97.5% (276/283) had no previous vaccination history, and 96.1% (272/283) were from dogs. Fifty-five out of 174 (31.6%) samples were from dogs which bit more than one person. Human exposures to dog and other animal bites are not differentiated. Average annual number of outbreaks was 31, whereas percentage dog vaccination ranged from 10.26-17.56. Current annual percentage dog anti-rabies vaccination coverage is very low, whereas the incidence of dog rabies in the region is high. The number of humans affected may be underestimated. Government should immediately facilitate annual mass vaccination of pets.
Rabies, Lyssa Virus, Dogs, Percentage Vaccination Coverage, Greater-Accra Region, Ghana
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Perdita Hilary Lopes, Patricia Akweongo, Fred Wurapa, Edwin Afari, Samuel Oko Sackey, Edward Mark Hansen, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Canine Rabies Outbreaks, Vaccination Coverage, and Transmission in Humans: Greater Accra Region, Ghana- A Retrospective Study-2006-2011, American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 58-63. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20180602.14
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