Risk Factors Associated with Group B Streptococcus Colonization and Their Effect on Pregnancy Outcome
Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 121-128
Received: Nov. 12, 2015; Accepted: Nov. 24, 2015; Published: Dec. 30, 2015
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Authors
Lucia Matsiane Lekala, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa
Rooyen Tinago Mavenyengwa, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe; Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia
Sylvester Rogers Moyo, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia
Sogolo Lucky Lebelo, Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture & Environmental Science, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
John Yenga Bolukaoto, Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture & Environmental Science, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
Martina Onyedi Chukwu, Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture & Environmental Science, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
Charles Maropeng Monyama, Department of Life and Consumer Sciences, College of Agriculture & Environmental Science, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa
Maphoshane Nchabeleng, Department of Microbiological Pathology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa
Tshimane Charles Tshepuwane, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa
Sam Monokoane, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa
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Abstract
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. It has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal colonization has been found to be a major risk factor for invasive neonatal GBS disease. The main objective of this study was to identify the risk factors of Group B streptococcus colonization and its effect on pregnancy outcome. Methods: This was a prospective study in which pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) at Dr George Mukhari Hospital (DGMH) were recruited. These were at least18 years old and were at 16 weeks gestation. Vaginal and rectal swabs were taken at recruitment. Follow up of mothers until six weeks post-delivery and babies until three months of age was done. Results: A total of 340 pregnant women were then investigated for GBS colonization. Out of this number, 164 (48.2%) were GBS positive. The majority of the women (62.1%) were parity 1 and 2. Group B Streptococcus colonization was significant in women who had no matric education and who were unemployed. There was a significantly higher GBS colonization in women with previous history of miscarriages and stillbirths. The proportion of HIV positive, GBS colonized women was significant at 41.5% as compared to HIV negative GBS colonized (34.7%). Eight women (4.9%) presented with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and the duration ranged from 0.5 to 72 hours. Ten (6.1%) women had preterm deliveries. Three (1.8%) women had wound sepsis post caesarean section and one (0.6%) had endometritis post vaginal delivery. A total of 7 (24.1%) babies were GBS positive. The number of live babies delivered was 167, with 1 case of miscarriage due to severe preeclampsia. There were 2 cases of early neonatal deaths which included 1 case of sepsis whereas the other one had multiple congenital abnormalities. Conclusion: Colonization by GBS in pregnant women at DGMH was high. Maternal risk factors identified were previous history of stillbirths/miscarriages, lack of education and being HIV positive. Overall pregnancy outcome both maternal and foetal was good.
Keywords
Group B Streptococcus, Risk Factors, Pregnancy, HIV, South Africa
To cite this article
Lucia Matsiane Lekala, Rooyen Tinago Mavenyengwa, Sylvester Rogers Moyo, Sogolo Lucky Lebelo, John Yenga Bolukaoto, Martina Onyedi Chukwu, Charles Maropeng Monyama, Maphoshane Nchabeleng, Tshimane Charles Tshepuwane, Sam Monokoane, Risk Factors Associated with Group B Streptococcus Colonization and Their Effect on Pregnancy Outcome, Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp. 121-128. doi: 10.11648/j.jgo.20150306.14
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Copyright © 2015 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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