Geomorphological Explanation of Karstic Drainage Sensitivity toward Anthropogenic Pollutants in Kardeh Catchment, NE Iran
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 113-117
Received: May 7, 2014; Accepted: May 12, 2014; Published: May 20, 2014
Views 3010      Downloads 259
Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar, Department of Physical Geography, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Abolfazl Behniafar, Department of Physical Geography, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Hadi Ghanbarzadeh, Department of Physical Geography, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Article Tools
Follow on us
In the present study, we aimed to geomorphological explanation of karst features and their environmental sensitivity in Kardeh catchment in Kopet–Dagh mountainous zone, NE Iran. Environmental sensitivity of karst is well marked by anthropogenic pollutants and land degradation problems in regions such as Kopet–Dagh, where some tens of karstic landforms are present over the Jurassic lithology. Anthropogenic pollutants resulted in intense environmental degradation and changed the natural karstic drainage in the catchment. We faced with karstified drainage, which supplies a portion of drinking–water of Mashhad metropolitan area. In Kardeh catchment, three main sources of anthropogenic pollutants to karst drainage have been identified: agricultural impacts, waste water entrance in hydrologic system of karst and garbage burying on carbonate prone rocks. Based on the comparison of fertilizers consumption and wastes production in the catchment we observed that the sub–basins of Balghur (Bl), Kharkat (Kh) and Mareshk (Ma) sub–basins have the most anthropogenic pollutants, where the carbonate formations of Mozduran 1, 2 (>75% of surface area) have the most environmental sensitivity. As a general rule, the protection of the hydrologic system of karst and management of the carbonate catchment are geomorphological strategies in environmental planning.
Anthropogenic Pollutants, Environmental Sensitivity, Geomorphology, Kardeh Catchment, Karstic Drainage
To cite this article
Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar, Abolfazl Behniafar, Hadi Ghanbarzadeh, Geomorphological Explanation of Karstic Drainage Sensitivity toward Anthropogenic Pollutants in Kardeh Catchment, NE Iran, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 113-117. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20140203.12
Bagherzadeh A, Mansouri Daneshvar MR (2011). Sediment yield assessment by EPM and PSIAC models using GIS data in semi–arid region. Frontiers of Earth Science 5(2), 207–216.
Bakalowicz M (2005). Karst groundwater: a challenge for new resources. Hy-drogeology Journal 13(1), 148–160.
Calò F, Parise M (2006). Evaluating the human dis-turbance to karst environments in southern Italy. Acta Carsologica 35(2–3), 47–56.
Calò F, Parise M (2009). Waste management and problems of groundwater pollution in karst environ-ments in the context of a post–conflict scenario: The case of Mostar (Bosnia Herzegovina). Habi-tat International 33(1), 63–72.
Daly D, Dassargues A, Drew D, Dunne S, Goldschneider N, Neale S,Popescu IC, Zwahlen F (2002). Main concepts of the "European approach" to karst–groundwater–vulnerability assessment and mapping. Hydrogeology Journal 10(2), 340–345.
Das BK, Kaur P (2001). Major ion chemistry of Renuka Lake and weathering processes, Sirmaur District, Himachal Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology 40(7), 908–917.
Drew D, Hötzl H (1999). Karst hydrogeology and human activities: impacts, consequences and implications. International Contributions to Hydrogeology 20. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 322 p.
Emmett AJ, Telfer AL (1994). Influence of karst hydrology on water quality management in southeast South Australia. Environmental Geology 23(2) 149–155.
Ford DC (1993). Environmental change in karst areas. Environmental Geology 21(3), 107–109.
Gabrovsek F, Romanov D, Dreybrodt W (2004). Early karstification in a dual–fracture aquifer: the role of exchange flow between prominent fractures and a dense net of fissures. Journal of Hydrology 299(1–2), 45–66.
Gutiérrez F, Johnson KS, Cooper AH (2008). Evaporite karst processes, landforms, and environmental problems. Environmental Geology 53(5), 935–936.
Johnson KS, Neal JT (2003). Evaporite karst and engineering/environmental problems in the United States. Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular 109, 353 p.
Kovačič G, Ravbar N (2005). A review of the potential and actual sources of pollution to groundwater in selected karst areas in Slovenia. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 5, 225–233.
León LM, Parise M (2009). Managing environmental problems in Cuban karstic aquifers. Environmental Geology 58(2), 275–283.
Liedl R, Sauter M, Hückinghaus D, Cle-mens T, Teutsch G (2003). Simulation of the development of karst aquifers using a coupled conti-nuum pipe flow model. Water Resources Research 39(3), DOI: 10.1029/2001WR001206.
Milanović P (2000). Geological Engineering in Karst. Zebra Publishing Ltd, Belgrade. 347 p.
North LA, Van Beynen PE, Parise M (2009). Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: West–central Florida and southeast Italy, Journal of Environ-mental Management 90(5) 1770–1781.
Parise M, Gunn J (2007). Natural and Anthropo-genic Hazards in KarstAreas: Recognition, Analysis and Mitigation 279. Geological Society, London. Special Publication, 205 p.
Parise M, Qiriazi P, Sala S (2004). Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 4, 569–581.
Parise M, Qiriazi P, Sala S (2008). Evaporite karst of Albania: main features and cases of environmental degradation. Environmental Geology 53(5), 967–974.
Van Beynen P, Townsend K (2005). A disturbance index for karst environments. Environmental Management 36(1), 101–116.
Van Beynen P, Feliciano N, North L, Townsend K (2007). Application of the karst disturbance index in Hillsborough County, Florida. Environmental Management 39(2), 261–277.
White WB (2006). Fifty years of karst hydrology and hydrogeology: 1953–2003. Geological Society of America Special Papers 404, 139–152.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186