Treatment of Wastewater from a Slaughterhouse by Gliding Arc Humid Air Plasma: Chlorophyll Degradation
International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 118-125
Received: May 22, 2014; Accepted: Jun. 6, 2014; Published: Jun. 20, 2014
Views 2998      Downloads 191
Jourdin Gongwala, Department of Chemistry, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua, P. O. Box. 55 Maroua, Cameroon; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Serge Alain Djepang, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon; Institute of Geological and Mining Research, P.O. Box. 4110 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Paltahe Abba, Department of Chemistry, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua, P. O. Box. 55 Maroua, Cameroon; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Gaston Payom, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Samuel Laminsi, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Daniel Njopwouo, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P. O. Box. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Article Tools
Follow on us
Wastewater samples from liquid effluents of a slaughterhouse in the city of Yaounde (Cameroon) was first analyzed and exposed to gliding arc (glidarc) electric discharge to reduce the pollution load. The analyzed results showed high levels of organic pollution parameters (BOD5 = 2000 mg/L, COD = 30544 mg/L) and the presence of a large amount of microorganisms. The UV-Visible spectrum showed an absorbance peak at 663 nm which can be attributed to chlorophyll. A hexane extract of green leaves of senna alata was thus exposed to the plasma to follow the degradation of chlorophyll. After 30 minutes of treatment, reduction rates of 96% and 73% respectively were obtained for BOD5 and COD. The absorption peak disappears and a discoloration rate of 76% was obtained. Microorganisms such as fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci present in large quantities were completely destroyed by plasma after 15 minutes of exposure to the electric discharge. In addition, the decrease in total organic carbon showed that there was mineralization of chlorophyll contained in senna alata. This study shows that the gliding arc plasma is effective in cleaning the wastewater from slaughterhouses and in degrading chlorophyll.
Gliding arc plasma, Wastewater, Slaughterhouse, Pollution, Chlorophyll, Degradation
To cite this article
Jourdin Gongwala, Serge Alain Djepang, Paltahe Abba, Gaston Payom, Samuel Laminsi, Daniel Njopwouo, Treatment of Wastewater from a Slaughterhouse by Gliding Arc Humid Air Plasma: Chlorophyll Degradation, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy. Vol. 2, No. 3, 2014, pp. 118-125. doi: 10.11648/j.ijepp.20140203.13
J. Rodier, “The analysis of water (in French),” 9th Edition, Dunod, Paris, 2009.
J. Gongwala, P. Abba, G. Payom, D. Njopwouo, “Analysis and treatment by cold plasma of wastewaters from "the Brasseries’slaughterhouse " in Yaounde (in French)”, Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., Vol. 6, No. 6, 2012, pp. 7059-7068.
F. D. S. Gnokam-Zumgang, A. Doubla, J. L. Brisset, “Temporal post-discharge reactions in plasma-chemical degradation of slaughterhouse effluents,” Chemical Engineering Communications, Vol. 98, 2010, pp. 483-493.
H. Labioui, L. Elmoualdi, Y. Be-nabbou M. Elyachioui M. Ouhssine, “Processing and recycling of waste from slaughterhouses in Morocco,” AgroSolutions, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2007, pp. 35-40.
P. Folly, N. Engel, “Chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a conversion precedes Chlorophyll degradation in Hordeum vulgare L.,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 274, No. 31, 1999, pp. 21811-21816.
A. Doubla, L. Bouba-Bello, M. Fotso, J. L. Brisset, “Plasmachemical decolourisation of bromothymol blue by gliding electric discharge at atmospheric pressure,” Dyes and Pigments, Vol. 77, 2008, pp. 118-124.
F. Abdelmalek, S. Gharbia, B. Benstaali, A. Addou , J. L. Brisset, “Plasmachemical degradation of azo dyes by humid air plasma: Yellow Supranol 4 GL, Scarlet Red Nylosan F3 GL and industrial waste,” Water Res., Vol. 38, 2004, pp. 2339–2347.
H. A. Lesueur, A. Czernichowski, J. Chapelle, “Device for generating low temperature plasma by formation of gliding electric discharges (in French),” French Patent No. 88, 14932, 1988.
A. A. Fridman, A. Petrousov, J. Chapelle, J.M. Cormier, A. Czernichowski, H. Lesueur, J. Stevefelt, “Physical model of gliding arc discharge (in Frenh),” J. Phys. III, Vol. 4, 1994, pp. 1449-1465.
H. Matzing, “Chemicals kinetics of the gas cleaning by irradiation with electrons,” Adv Chem Phys, LXXX : 315, 1994.
R. Peyrous, B. Held, P. Pignolet, “Kinetic simulation of gaseous species created by an electric discharge in hu-mid air,” Papers of Technical Meeting on Electric Discharges, Tokyo, ED, vol. 87-63, 1987, pp. 95-109.
J.S. Chang. “The enhanced effect of in-situ ammonium salt aerosols on the com-bined removal of SO2 and NOX from simulated flue gas in pulsed corona enhanced wet electros-tatic precipitators,” J Aerosol Sci, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1989, pp. 1087 -1090.
J. L. Brisset, “Lightning in a bottle. Electric gliding discharge at atmospheric pressure and environmental ap-plications (in French),” Le Bup, Vol. 912, No. 103, 2009, pp. 257-280.
B. Benstaali, P. Bou-bert, B.G. Cheron, A. Addou and J. L. Brisset, “Density and rotational temperatures measurements of the NO• and HO• radicals produced by a gliding arc in humid air and their interaction with aqueous solution,” Plasma Chem.Plasma Proc., Vol. 22, 2002, pp. 553-571.
M. Roustan, J. Mallevialle, H. Roques, J. P. Jones, “Mass transfer of ozone to water: a fundamental study,” Ozone Sci.Eng. Vol. 2, 1981, pp. 337–344.
X. Tu, L. Yu, J. Yan, K. Cen, B. Cheron, “Dynamic and spectroscopic characteristics of atmospheric gliding arc in gas–liquid two phases flow,” Phys Plasmas, Vol. 16, 113506, 2009.
B. W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, “Chemical kinet-ics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modelling evaluation,” NASA JPL publication, Vol. 11, 1994, pp. 94-26
P. Bruggeman, T. Verreyken, M. Gonzales, J. L. Walsh, M. G. Kong, C. Leys, D. C. Schramm, “Optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for plasmas in liquids: op-portunities and pitfalls,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. Vol. 43, 124005, 2010.
R. Ono, T. Oda, “Measurement of hydroxyl radicals by pulsed corona discharge,” J. Electrostatics, Vol. 55, 2002, pp. 333–342
S. Kanazawa, H. Tanaka, A. Kajiwara, T. Okhubo, Y. Nomoto, M. Kocik, J. Mi-zeraczyk, J. S. Chang, “LIF imaging radicals in DC positive streamer coronas,” Thin Solid films, Vol. 515, No. 42, 2007, pp. 66–71.
M. Sahni, W. Finney, B. Locke, “Quantification of hydroxyl radicals produced in aqueous phase pulsed electrical discharge reactors,” Ind. Eng. Chem Res., Vol. 45, No. 58, 2006, pp. 19–25.
J. L. Brisset, E. Hnatiuc, “Peroxynitrite a re-examination of the chemical properties of non thermal discharges burning in air over aqueous solutions,” Plasma Chem Plasma Process, Vol. 32, 2012, pp. 655-674.
J. L. Brisset, D. Moussa, A. Doubla, E. Hnatiuc, B. Hnatiuc, G. K. Youbi, J. M. Herry, M. Naitali, M. N. Bellon Fon-taine, “Chemical Reactivity of Discharge and temporal Post-Discharge in Plasma Treatment of Aqueous Media: Examples of Gliding Discharge Treated Solutions,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 47, 2008, pp. 5761-5781.
J. L. Brisset, B. Benstaali, D. Moussa, J. Fanmoe, E. Njoyim-Tamungang, “Acidity control of plasmachemical oxidation: application to dye removal, urban wastes abatement and microbial inactivation,” Plasma source Sci Technol, Vol. 20, 034021, 2011.
E. Hnatiuc, “Electrical Process of measures and treatment of pollutants (in French),” Ed. Tec & Doc, 2002, pp. 159-295.
A. Doubla, F. Abdelmalek, K. Khélifa, A. Addou, J. L. Brisset, “Post-discharge plasma-chemical oxidation of Iron (II) complexes,” Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, Vol. 33, 2003, pp. 73-77.
D. Moussa, J. L. Brisset, “Disposal of spent tributylphosphate by gliding arc plasma,” J. Hazard. Mat. Vol. B102, 2003, pp. 189 –200.
A. Fridman, “Plasma Chemistry,” Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008.
B. Held, “Physics of cold plasmas,” Ed. Masson, Paris, 1994.
S. A. Djepang, S. Laminsi, I. Djakaou, T. Koyouaili, “Removal of black Eriochrome T by Glidarc plasma (in French),” Revue des Sciences de l’Eau, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2014, pp. 71-78.
A. Doubla, S. Laminsi, S. Nza-li, E. Njoyim-Tamungang, J. Kamsu-Kom, J. L. Brisset, “Organic pollutants abatement and biode-contamination of brewery effluents by a non-thermal quenched plasma at atmospheric pressure,” Chemosphere, Vol. 69, 2007, pp. 332–337.
E. Njoyim-Tamungang, P. Ghogomu, S. Laminsi, S. Nzali, A.Doubla, J. L. Brisset, “Coupling Gliding Discharge Treatment and Catalysis by Oyster Shell Powder for Pollution Abatement of Surface Waters,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 48, 2009, pp. 9773-9780.
D. Moussa, F. Abdelmalek, B. Benstaali, A. Addou, E. Hnatiuc, J. L. Brisset, “Acidity control of the gliding arc treatments of aqueous solutions: application to pollutant abatement and biodecontamination,” European Physical Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 29, 2005, pp. 189-199.
F. Abdelmalek, “Plasma Chemistry of Aqueous Solutions: Application to the Degradation of Toxic Compounds (in French),” Ph.D Dissertation, University of Mostaganem, Al-geria, 2003.
R. Burlica, M. J. Kirkpatrick, W. C. Finney, R. J. Clark, B. Locke, “Organic dye removal from Aqueous Solution by gliding arc discharges,” J. Electrostat., Vol. 62, 2004, pp. 309-321.
P. Abba, J. Gongwala, S. Laminsi, J. L. Brisset, “The Effect of the Humid Air Plasma on the Conductivity of Distilled Water: Contribution of Ions”, Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ., Vol.4, No. 1, 2014, pp. 25-30.
S. Bai, S. Srikantaswamy, D. Shivakumar, “Urban Wastewa-ter Characteristic and Its Management in Urban Areas - a Case Study of Mysore City, Karnataka, India,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2, 2010, pp. 717-726.
W. D. Na-farnda, I. E. Ajayi, J. C. Shawulu, M. S. Kawe, G. K. Omeiza, N. A. Sani, O. Z. Tenuche, D. D. Dantong, S. Z. Tags, “Bacteriological quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in Abuja, Nigeria,” International Scholarly research Network, Vol. 2012, 515689, 2012, 5 p.
R. E. J. Sladek, E. Stoffels, “Deactivation of Escherichia coli by the plasma needle,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. Vol. 38, 2005, pp. 1716–1721
M. Moreau, M. G. J. Feuilloley, N. Orange, J. L. Brisset, “Lethal effect of the gliding arc discharges on Erwinia spp,” J. Appl. Microbiol., Vol. 98, 2005, pp.1039–1046.
G. Kamgang-Youbi, J. M. Herry, M. N. Bellon-Fontaine, J. L. Brisset, A. Doubla, M. Nataïlli, “Evidence of Temporal Postdischarge Decontamination of Bacteria by Gliding Electric Discharges: Application to Hafnia alvei,” Applied And Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 73, No. 15, 2007, pp. 4791–4796.
D. Deshna, A. Bafna, “Effect of lead stress on chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde and peroxidase activity in seedlings of mung bean (Vigna radiata),” International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2013, pp. 20-25.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186