International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 57-64
Received: Feb. 20, 2015;
Accepted: Apr. 3, 2015;
Published: May 12, 2015
Views 4053 Downloads 116
Felix Iyalomhe, Global Change and Sustainability Research Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Philipa Idogho, Department of Office Technology and Management, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria
Negative impacts of developments on the health of humans and the environment in the Waterberg municipality of South Africa are anticipated. An understanding of such impacts demands the integration of relevant environmental monitoring and assessments (i.e. biophysical and socioeconomic) in order to examine the negative impacts before planned developments in the region. Over the years, an integrated approach to environmental monitoring has not been very successful, because of vague conceptualization and lack of clear objectives and priorities linked to the interpretation of roles and responsibilities for compliance with regulatory and management programs (e.g. South African National Environmental Management Air Quality Act No. 39 of 2004 etc.). This paper proposes a conceptual framework as an approach to integrate different environmental monitoring and assessments of biophysical and socioeconomic systems in the context of planned developments. It identifies relevant types of environmental monitoring and assessment and describes how these could be linked, and highlights the concept of an integrated environmental baseline not just as a basis for present and future environmental conditions, but also as a potential link between the various processes and practitioners of all monitoring and assessments; while it attempts to enhance a full understanding of changes in environmental conditions and their likely trends, drivers and impacts. This paper theoretically illustrate the framework using the Waterberg municipality, in order to highlight its potentials as a proactive and integrated approach to understanding changes in environmental conditions and consequent impacts on the health of humans and the environment due to anticipated changes in key environmental parameters. Thus, this paper argues that the framework could provide a systematic procedure to environmental monitoring and assessment, and a coherent understanding of environmental conditions before planned developments at a local scale, by informing concepts and processes that should link various monitoring initiatives and their practitioners.
Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Framework at the Municipality Scale, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 57-64.
Abaza H, Bisset R, Sadler B. Environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment: towards an integrated approach. UNEP/Earthprint; 2004.
Beanlands GE, Duinker PN. An ecological framework for environmental impact assessment in Canada. 1983. Available from: http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/ceaa-acee/ecological_framework-e/23E.PDF
Burton GA, Batley GE, Chapman PM, Forbes VE, Smith EP, Reynoldson T, et al. A weight-of evidence framework for assessing sediment (or other) contamination: improving certainty in the decision-making process. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2002;8:1675–96.
Born SM, Sonzogni WC. Integrated environmental management: strengthening the conceptualization. Environmental Management. 1995;19(2):167–81.
Bryman A. Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how is it done? Qualitative research. 2006;6(1):97–113.
Canter LW. Environmental impact assessment. McGraw-Hill: New York; 1977.
Chan NY, Ebi KL, Smith F, Wilson TF, Smith AE. An integrated assessment framework for climate change and infectious diseases. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999; 107(5):329.
Chapman DV. Water quality assessments: a guide to the use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring. E & Fn Spon: London; 1996.
Cormier SM, Suter II GW. A framework for fully integrating environmental assessment. Environmental Management. 2008;42(4):543–56.
Dubé M, Munkittrick K. Integration of effects-based and stressor-based approaches into a holistic framework for cumulative effects assessment in aquatic ecosystems. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2001;7(2):247–58.
Edwards CA. Assessing the effects of environmental pollutants on soil organisms, communities, processes and ecosystems. European Journal of Soil Biology. 2002;38(3):225–231.
Eggenberger M, Partidário MR. Development of a framework to assist the integration of environmental, social and economic issues in spatial planning. Impact assessment and project appraisal. 2000;18(3):201–7.
Gough C, Castells N, Funtowicz S. Integrated Assessment: an emerging methodology for complex issues. Environmental Modeling & Assessment. 1998;3(1-2):19–29.
Hisschemöller M, Tol RS, Vellinga P. The relevance of participatory approaches in integrated environmental assessment. Integrated Assessment. 2001;2(2):57–72.
Humphrey CL, Faith DP, Dostine PL. Baseline requirements for assessment of mining impact using biological monitoring. Australian Journal of Ecology. 1995;20(1):150–66.
Jabareen, Y. A new conceptual framework for sustainable development. Environment Development and Sustainability. 2008;10(2),197–192.
Karr JR. Biological monitoring and environmental assessment: a conceptual framework. Environmental Management. 1987;11(2):249–56.
Margerum RD. Integrated environmental management: moving from theory to practice. Journal of environmental planning and management. 1995;38(3):371–92.
Margerum RD. Integrated environmental management: lessons from the Trinity Inlet Management Program. Land use Policy. 1999;16(3):179-70.
Munns WR, Kroes R, Veith G, Suter II GW, Damstra T, Waters MD. Approaches for integrated risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003;9(1):267–72.
National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act, No. 39 of 2004. Accessed on 3 March 2014, available at http://www.environment.gov.za. Republic of South Africa (2004).
Quinlan T, Scogings P. Why biophysical and social scientists can speak the same language when addressing sustainable development. Environmental Science & Policy. 2004;7(6):537–46.
Rounsevell MDA, Dawson TP, Harrison PA. A conceptual framework to assess the effects of environmental change on ecosystem services. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2010;19(10):2823–42.
Rothman DS, Robinson JB. Growing pains: a conceptual framework for considering integrated assessments. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 1997; 46(1-2): 23–43.
Smith ML. Environmental impact assessments: the roles of predicting and monitoring the extent of impacts. Marine and Freshwater Research. 1991;42(5):603–14.
Slootweg R, Vanclay F, van Schooten M. Function evaluation as a framework for the integration of social and environmental impact assessment. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal. 2001;19(1):19–28.
StatsSA (Statistics South Africa). Municipality Fact Sheet. Published by Statistics South Africa. Census, 2011.
Stem C, Margoluis R, Salafsky N, Brown M. Monitoring and evaluation in conservation: a review of trends and approaches. Conservation Biology. 2005;19(2):295–309.
Suter II GW, Vermeire T, Munns Jr WR, Sekizawa J. An integrated framework for health and ecological risk assessment. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2005;207(2):611–6.
Suter II GW. Ecological risk assessment. CRC press; 2006.
Suter II GW, Vermeire T, Munns WR, Sekizawa J. Framework for the integration of health and ecological risk assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003;9(1):281–301.
Suter II GW, Cormier SM. Why and how to combine evidence in environmental assessments: Weighing evidence and building cases. Science of the Total Environment. 2011;409(8):1406–17.
Toth FL, Hizsnyik E. Integrated environmental assessment methods: Evolution and applications. Environmental Modeling & Assessment. 1998;3(3):193–207.
Van der Oost R, Beyer J, Vermeulen NP. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2003; 13(2): 57–149.
Venter AD, Vakkari V, Beukes JP, Van Zyl PG, Laakso H, Mabaso D, Tiitta P, Josipovic M, Kulmala M, Pienaar JJ, Laakso L. An air quality assessment in the industrialized western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa. South African Journal of Science. 2012;108(9-10):1–10.
WHO. Report on Integrated Risk Assessment. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. WHO/IPCS/ IRA/01/12; 2001.
Lovett GM, Burns DA, Driscoll CT, Jenkins JC, Mitchell MJ, Rustad L, et al. Who needs environmental monitoring? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2007;5(5):253–60.