Soil Erosion Is Influenced by Grain for Green Policy in Loess Plateau Area of Northern Shaanxi, China
Grain for Green Policy (GGP), one of China’s important ecological construction and protection policies, have been made remarkable achievements since implementation in 1999. The purpose of this work is to assessment of soil erosion influenced by GGP, which implementation is lead to great change of land use and vegetation cover, using RUSLE model on the basis of land use, MODIS NDVI, DEM and precipitation data in Loess Plateau area of northern Shaanxi, northwest of China. Result showed: (1) GGP implementation in northern Shaanxi was mainly during 1999-2003 and the area of returning farmland in the period accounted for 81.28% of the total area from1999 to 2008. (2) Farmland in northern Shaanxi and slope >25º was decrease 4.94% and 4.84%, respective ly, while grassland was increase 4.04% and 4.05%, respectively. The change of decreasing farmland and increasing grassland was mainly from 2000 to 2005 in northern Shaanxi and slope >25º. (3) Farmland was convert into woodland and grassland, which leaded to increasing of vegetation NDVI. Especially, the vegetation NDVI value of farmland in slope >25º was increase larger than whole area of northern Shaanxi from 2000 to 2010. (4) The change area of soil erosion in northern Shaanxi and slope >25º was decrease in 1 degree, while was increase in other degrees from 2000 to 2010. But when recalculated by rainfall erosivity in 2000, the change area of soil erosion in northern Shaanxi and >25º was increase in 1 degree, while was decrease in other degrees from 2000 to 2010. Vegetation cover change induced by GGP was reduce soil erosion, but due to rainfall erosivity increased, soil erosion was show increase trend in northern Shaanxi and slope >25º.
Soil Erosion Is Influenced by Grain for Green Policy in Loess Plateau Area of Northern Shaanxi, China, International Journal of Environmental Protection and Policy.
Vol. 3, No. 5,
2015, pp. 129-136.
State Forestry Administration of PRC, “2011 Statistical Yearbook of National Forestry Analysis Report.” China Forestry Network, http://www.forestry.gov.cn. 2011.
M. Persson, J. Moberg, M. Ostwald, J. Xu, “The Chinese Grain for Green programme: assessing the carbon sequestered via land reform.” Journal of Environment Management Vol. 126, pp. 142-146, 2013.
H. Zhou, A. Van Rompaey, J. Wang, “Detecting the impact of the “Grain for Green” program on the mean annual vegetation cover in the Shaanxi province, China using SPOT-VGT NDVI data.” Land Use Policy Vol. 26, pp. 954-960, 2009.
J. J. Zhang, F. J. Chen, J. Q. Bai, X. P. Zhang, Y. N. Lei, E. J. Liu, “Evolution analysis of cultivated land structure characteristics on gully area of loess plateau in 1983-2009.” Transactions of the CSAE Vol. 28(16), pp. 232-239, 2012.
R. Chen, C. Ye, Y. Cai, X. Xing, Q. Chen, “The impact of rural out-migration on land use transition in China: past, present and trend.” Land Use Policy Vol. 40, pp. 101-110, 2014.
D. Li, J. Zhuo, Z. Sun, “Monitoring the effects of ecosystem restructuring project after returning farmland to forest based on RS and GIS.” Transactions of the CSAE Vol. 24(12), pp. 120-126, 2008.
Z. Li, B. Li, “Spatial and temporal changes in grain production before and after implementation of Grain for Green project in Loess Plateau region.” Transactions of the CSAE Vol. 28(11), pp. 1-8, 2012.
S. Cao, C. Xu, L. Chen, X. Wang, “Attitudes of farmers in China’s northern Shaanxi province towards the land-use changes required under the Grain for Green Project, and implication for the project’s success.” Land Use Policy Vol.26, pp. 1182-1194, 2009.
L. Chen, Z. Huang, J. Gong, B. Fu, Y. Huang, “The effect of land cover/vegetation on soil water dynamic in the hilly area of the loess plateau, China.” Catena Vol. 70, pp. 200-208, 2007.
P. Zhou, O. Luukkanen, T. Tookola, J. Nieminen, “Effect of vegetation cover on soil erosion in a mountainous watershed.” Catena Vol. 75, pp. 319-325, 2008.
Z. M. Wen, B. G. Less, F. Jiao, W. N. Lei, H. J. Shi, “Stratified vegetation cover index: a new way to assess vegetation impact on soil erosion.” Catena Vol. 83, pp. 87-93, 2010.
Y. N. Zeng, W. P. Jin, H. M. Li, L. X. Tan, “Analysis and evaluation of cultivated land decrease in eastern part of Qinghai Plateau.” Transactions of the CSAE Vol. 29(21), pp. 214-222, 2013.
Shaanxi Bureau of Statistics, NBS Survey Office in Shaanxi, “Shaanxi statistical yearbook.” China Statistics Press, Beijing. 2000-2009.
D. Yoder, J. Lown, “The future of RUSLE: inside new revised universal soil loss equation.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Vol. 50(5), pp. 484-489, 1995.
W. B. Zhang, Y. Xie, B. Y. Liu, “Rainfall erosivity estimation using daily rainfall amounts.” Scientia Geographica Sinica Vol. 22(6), pp. 705-711, 2002.
W. B. Zhang, J. S. Fu, “Rainfall erosivity estimation under different rainfall amount.” Resources Science Vol. 25(1), pp. 35-41, 2003.
Y. Xie, B. Y. Liu, W. B. Zhang, “Sutdy on standard of erosion rainfall.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Vol. 14(4), pp. 6-11, 2000.
K. Auerswald, P Fiener, W. Martin, D. Elhaus, “Use and misuse of the k factor equation in soil erosion modelling: an alternative equation for determining USLE nomograph soil erodibility values.” Catena Vol. 118, pp. 220-225, 2014.
L. S. Zhao, X. L. Liang, F. Q. Wu, “Soil surface roughness change and its effect on runoff and erosion on the loess plateau of China.” Journal of Arid Land Vol. 6(4), pp. 400-409, 2014.
United States Department of Agriculture, “EPIC-erosion/productivity impact calculator: 1. Model Documentation.” Technical Bulletin Number 1768. Washington, D C: USDA-ARS, 1990.
W. H. Wischmeier, D. D. Smith, “Predicting rainfall erosion losses: a guide to conservation planning with universal soil loss equation (USLE).” Agriculture Handbook 537. Washington, D C: USDA-ARS, 1978.
D. K. McCool, L. C. Brown, G. R. Foster, L. D. Meyer, “Revised slope steepness factor for the universal soil loss equation.” Transaction of the ASAE Vol. 30(5), pp. 1387-1396, 1987.
B. Liu, M. A. Nearing, L. M. Risse, “Slope gradient effects on soil loss for steep slopes.” Transactions of the ASAE Vol. 37(6), pp.1835-1840, 1994.
S. M. DeJong, “Applications of reflective remote sensing for land degradation studies in a Mediterranean environment.” Koninklijk Nederlandse Aardrijksunding Genootschap, 1994.
T. Li, L. Zheng, “Soil erosion changes in the Yanhe watershed from 2001 to 2010 based on RUSLE model.” Journal of Natural Resources Vol. 27(7), pp. 1164-1175, 2012.
A. Lufafa, M. M. Tenywa, M. Isabirye, “Prediction of soil erosion in a Lake Victoria basin catchment using GIS based universal soil loss model.” Agricultural Systems Vol.76, pp. 883-984, 2003.
The Ministry of Water Resources of PRC (MWR of PRC), “SL190-2007 Standards of classification of soil erosion.” Beijing: China Water & Power Press, 2007.